integer (n.) Look up integer at
"a whole number" (as opposed to a fraction), 1570s, from Latin integer (adj.) "intact, whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch," from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle," from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle." The word was used earlier in English as an adjective in the Latin sense, "whole, entire" (c. 1500).
integral (adj.) Look up integral at
late 15c., "of or pertaining to a whole; intrinsic, belonging as a part to a whole," from Middle French intégral (14c.), from Medieval Latin integralis "forming a whole," from Latin integer "whole" (see integer). Related: Integrally. As a noun, 1610s, from the adjective.
integrate (v.) Look up integrate at
1630s, "to render (something) whole, bring together the parts of," from Latin integratus, past participle of integrare "make whole," from integer "whole, complete," figuratively, "untainted, upright," literally "untouched," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + root of tangere "to touch," from PIE root *tag- "to touch, handle."

The meaning "put together parts or elements and combine them into a whole" is from 1802. The "racially desegregate" sense (1940) probably is a back-formation from integration. Related: Integrated; integrating.
integrated (adj.) Look up integrated at
1580s, "combined into a whole," past participle adjective from integrate (v.). Sense of "desegregated, not or no longer divided by race, etc." is from 1947.
integration (n.) Look up integration at
1610s, "act of bringing together the parts of a whole," from French intégration and directly from Late Latin integrationem (nominative integratio) "renewal, restoration," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin integrare "make whole," also "renew, begin again" (see integrate). Anti-discrimination sense (opposed to segregation) is recorded from 1934.
integrity (n.) Look up integrity at
c. 1400, "innocence, blamelessness; chastity, purity," from Old French integrité or directly from Latin integritatem (nominative integritas) "soundness, wholeness, completeness," figuratively "purity, correctness, blamelessness," from integer "whole" (see integer). Sense of "wholeness, perfect condition" is mid-15c.
integument (n.) Look up integument at
1610s, from Latin integumentum "a covering," from integere "to cover over," from in- "in, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + tegere "to cover," from PIE root *(s)teg- "to cover." Specific sense in biology is from 1660s.
integumentary (adj.) Look up integumentary at
1826, from integument + -ary.
intellect (n.) Look up intellect at
"the sum of the cognitive facilities (except sense or sense and imagination), the capacity for reasoning truth," late 14c. (but little used before 16c.), from Old French intellect "intellectual capacity" (13c.), and directly from Latin intellectus "discernment, a perception, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence). The Latin word was used to translate Greek nous "mind, thought, intellect" in Aristotle.
intellection (n.) Look up intellection at
c. 1400, intellecioun "meaning, purpose;" mid-15c., "the understanding;" 1610s, "an act of understanding," from Old French intelleccion and directly from Medieval Latin intellectionem (nominative intellectio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence).
intellectual (n.) Look up intellectual at
1590s, "mind, intellect, intellectual powers," from intellectual (adj.). The meaning "an intellectual person" is attested from 1650s but was hardly used in that sense in 19c. and the modern use in this sense seems to be a re-coinage from c. 1906. Related: Intellectuals.
intellectual (adj.) Look up intellectual at
late 14c., "grasped by the understanding" (rather than by the senses), from Old French intellectuel (13c.) and directly from Latin intellectualis "relating to the understanding," from intellectus "discernment, understanding," noun use of past participle of intelligere "to understand, discern" (see intelligence).

Sense of "characterized by a high degree of intellect" is from 1819. Meaning "appealing to or engaging the mental powers" is from 1834. Intellectual property "products of the intellect" is attested from 1845. Adjective formations in the sense "of or pertaining to the intellect" included intellective (early 15c.), intellectile (1670s).
intellectualism (n.) Look up intellectualism at
1818, in philosophy, "belief in the supremacy of the intellect," probably based on German Intellektualismus (said by Klein to have been coined 1803 by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854) from Late Latin intellectualis); see intellectual + -ism. Meaning "devotion to intellectuality" also is from 1818.
intellectuality (n.) Look up intellectuality at
mid-15c., "the part of the mind which understands; understanding, intellect;" from Old French intellectualité and directly from Late Latin intellectualitas, from Latin intellectualis "relating to the understanding" (see intellectual).
intellectualization (n.) Look up intellectualization at
1821, noun of action from intellectualize.
intellectualize (v.) Look up intellectualize at
1819 (Coleridge), "infuse with intellectual quality," from intellectual + -ize. From 1827 as "exercise the mind, reason upon a matter of intellect." Related: Intellectualized; intellectualizing.
intellectually (adv.) Look up intellectually at
late 14c., "to or by the understanding," from intellectual + -ly (2).
intelligence (n.) Look up intelligence at
late 14c., "the highest faculty of the mind, capacity for comprehending general truths;" c. 1400, "faculty of understanding, comprehension," from Old French intelligence (12c.) and directly from Latin intelligentia, intellegentia "understanding, knowledge, power of discerning; art, skill, taste," from intelligentem (nominative intelligens) "discerning, appreciative," present participle of intelligere "to understand, comprehend, come to know," from assimilated form of inter "between" (see inter-) + legere "choose, pick out, read," from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."

Meaning "superior understanding, sagacity, quality of being intelligent" is from early 15c. Sense of "information received or imparted, news" first recorded mid-15c., especially "secret information from spies" (1580s). Meaning "a being endowed with understanding or intelligence" is late 14c. Intelligence quotient first recorded 1921 (see I.Q.).
intelligencer (n.) Look up intelligencer at
1580s, "spy, informant," agent noun from intelligence. Perhaps modeled on French intelligencier or Italian intelligentiere. Meaning "bringer of news, one who conveys intelligence" is from 1630s; as a newspaper name from 1640s.
intelligent (adj.) Look up intelligent at
c. 1500, a back-formation from intelligence or else from Latin intelligentem (nominative intelligens), present participle of intelligere. Intelligent design, as a name for an alternative to atheistic cosmology and the theory of evolution, is from 1999. Related: Intelligently.
intelligentsia (n.) Look up intelligentsia at
"the intellectual class collectively," 1905, from Russian intelligyentsiya, from Latin intelligentia "intelligence" (see intelligence). Perhaps via Italian intelligenzia.
intelligibility (n.) Look up intelligibility at
1670s, from intelligible + -ity.
intelligible (adj.) Look up intelligible at
late 14c., "able to understand, intelligent," from Latin intelligibilis, intellegibilis "that can understand; that can be understood," from intellegere "to understand, come to know" (see intelligence). In Middle English also "to be grasped by the intellect" (rather than the senses). In English, sense of "capable of being understood, that can be understood" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Intelligibly.
intemperance (n.) Look up intemperance at
early 15c., "lack of restraint, excess," also of weather, "inclemency, severity," from Old French intemperance (14c.) and directly from Latin intemperantia "intemperateness, immoderation, excess" (as in intemperantia vini "immoderate use of wine"), from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + temperantia "moderation, sobriety, discretion, self-control," from temperans, present participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)).
intemperate (adj.) Look up intemperate at
"characterized by excessive indulgence in a passion or appetite," late 14c., from Latin intemperatus "excessive, immoderate," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + temperatus "restrained, regulated, limited, moderate, sober, calm, steady," past participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)). Related: Intemperately.
intend (v.) Look up intend at
c. 1300, entenden, "direct one's attention to, pay attention, give heed," from Old French entendre, intendre "to direct one's attention" (in Modern French principally "to hear"), from Latin intendere "turn one's attention, strain (in quest of something), be zealous," literally "stretch out, extend," from in- "toward" (from PIE root *en "in") + tendere "to stretch," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."

Sense of "have as a plan, have in mind or purpose" (late 14c.) was present in Latin. A Germanic word for this was ettle, from Old Norse ætla "to think, conjecture, propose," from Proto-Germanic *ahta "consideration, attention" (source also of Old English eaht, German acht). Related: Intended; intending.
intendant (n.) Look up intendant at
"one who has charge of some business," 1650s, from French intendant (16c.), from Latin intendantem, present participle of intendere "turn one's attention, exert oneself" (see intend).
intended (n.) Look up intended at
"one's intended husband or wife," 1767, noun use of past participle of intend (v.).
intense (adj.) Look up intense at
early 15c., of situations or qualities, "great, extreme," from Old French intense (13c.), from Latin intensus "stretched, strained, high-strung, tight," originally past participle of intendere in its literal sense of "stretch out, strain" (see intend). From 1630s of persons, "high-strung." Related: Intensely; intenseness.
intensification (n.) Look up intensification at
1835, noun of action from intensify.
intensify (v.) Look up intensify at
1817 (transitive), from intense + -ify, first attested in Coleridge, in place of intend, which he said no longer was felt as connected with intense. Intransitive sense is from 1845. Middle English used intensen (v.) "to increase (something), strengthen, intensify," early 15c. Related: Intensified; intensifying.
I am aware that this word [intensifying] occurs neither in Johnson's Dictionary nor in any classical writer. But the word, "to intend," which Newton and others before him employ in this sense, is now so completely appropriated to another meaning, that I could not use it without ambiguity: while to paraphrase the sense, as by render intense, would often break up the sentence and destroy that harmony of the position of the words with the logical position of the thoughts, which is a beauty in all composition, and more especially desirable in a close philosophical investigation. I have therefore hazarded the word, intensify; though, I confess, it sounds uncouth to my own ear. [Coleridge, footnote in "Biographia Literaria," 1817]
intension (n.) Look up intension at
c. 1600, "action of stretching; increase of degree or force," from Latin intensionem/intentionem (nominative intensio/intentio) "a stretching, straining," figuratively "exertion, effort," noun of action from past participle stem of intendere in its literal sense of "stretch out, strain" (see intend, and compare intention, which has the figurative sense). Related: Intensional.
intensity (n.) Look up intensity at
1660s, from intense + -ity. Earlier was intenseness (1610s). A scientific term originally; sense of "extreme depth of feeling" attested by 1830.
intensive (adj.) Look up intensive at
mid-15c., "intense, fervent, great," from Old French intensif (14c.) and Medieval Latin intensivus, from Latin intens-, past participle stem of intendere "turn one's attention; strain, stretch" (see intend).

Grammatical meaning "expressing intensity" is from c. 1600; as a noun, "something expressing intensity," 1813, from the adjective. Alternative intensitive is a malformation. Intensive care attested from 1958. Related: Intensively; intensiveness.
intent (n.) Look up intent at
"purpose," early 13c., from Old French entent, entente "goal, end, aim, purpose; attention, application," and directly from Latin intentus "a stretching out," in Late Latin "intention, purpose," noun use of past participle of intendere "stretch out, lean toward, strain," literally "to stretch out" (see intend). In law, "state of mind with respect to intelligent volition" (17c.).
intent (adj.) Look up intent at
late 14c., "very attentive, eager," from Latin intentus "attentive, eager, waiting, strained," past participle of intendere "to strain, stretch" (see intend). Sense of "having the mind fixed (upon something)" is from c. 1600. Related: Intently.
intention (n.) Look up intention at
late 14c., entencioun, "purpose, design, aim or object; will, wish, desire, that which is intended," from Old French entencion "intent, purpose, aspiration; will; thought" (12c.), from Latin intentionem (nominative intentio) "a stretching out, straining, exertion, effort; attention," noun of action from intendere "to turn one's attention," literally "to stretch out" (see intend). Also in Middle English "emotion, feelings; heart, mind, mental faculties, understanding."
intentional (adj.) Look up intentional at
1520s, from intention + -al (1) or else from Medieval Latin intentionalis. Intentional fallacy recorded from 1946. Related: Intentionality.
intentionally (adv.) Look up intentionally at
"on purpose," 1660s; see intentional + -ly (2). Middle English had the phrase of entencioun (1420) "on purpose, intentionally."
intentioned (adj.) Look up intentioned at
"having intentions" (of a specified kind), 16c., from intention + -ed.
intentions (n.) Look up intentions at
"one's purposes with regard to courtship and marriage," by 1796; see intention.
intentive (adj.) Look up intentive at
late 14c., "eager, assiduous; attentive, paying attention," from Old French ententif, intentif "attentive, solicitous, assiduous" (12c.), from Late Latin intentivus, from intent-, past participle stem of Latin intendere "turn one's attention" (see intend). Related: Intentively; intentiveness.
inter (v.) Look up inter at
"bury in the earth or a grave," c. 1300, formerly also enter, from Old French enterer (11c.), from Medieval Latin interrare "put in the earth, bury," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + Latin terra "earth" (from PIE root *ters- "to dry"). Related: Interred; interring.
inter alia Look up inter alia at
Latin, literally "amongst other things." from inter "among, between" (see inter-) + alia, neuter accusative plural of alius "(an)other" (see alias (adv.)). Latin for "among other persons" is inter alios.
inter- Look up inter- at
word-forming element used freely in English, "between, among, during," from Latin inter (prep., adv.) "among, between, betwixt, in the midst of" (also used extensively as a prefix), from PIE *enter "between, among" (source also of Sanskrit antar, Old Persian antar "among, between," Greek entera (plural) "intestines," Old Irish eter, Old Welsh ithr "among, between," Gothic undar, Old English under "under"), a comparative of root *en "in."

A living prefix in English from 15c. and used with Germanic as well as Latinate words. Spelled entre- in French; most words borrowed into English in that form were re-spelled 16c. to conform with Latin except entertain, enterprise. In Latin, spelling shifted to intel- before -l-, hence intelligence, etc.
inter-war (adj.) Look up inter-war at
1939, in reference to the period between the world wars, from inter- + war (n.).
interact (v.) Look up interact at
"act on each other, act reciprocally," 1805, from inter- + act (v.). Related: Interacted; interacting.
interaction (n.) Look up interaction at
1812, from inter- + action.
interactive (adj.) Look up interactive at
"acting upon or influencing each other," 1832, from interact (v.), probably on model of active. Related: Interactively; interactivity.
interamnian (adj.) Look up interamnian at
"between two rivers" (usually, if not exclusively, with reference to Mesopotamia), 1774, from Late Latin interamnius, from inter "between" (see inter-) + amnis "a river," a word perhaps of Celtic origin (see afanc).