inviable (adj.) Look up inviable at
1918, from in- (1) "not" + viable. Related: Inviability.
invictus Look up invictus at
Latin adjective, "unconquered, unsubdued, invincible."
invidious (adj.) Look up invidious at
c. 1600, from Latin invidiosus "full of envy, envious," from invidia "envy, grudge, jealousy, ill will" (see envy). Related: Invidiously; invidiousness.
invigilate (v.) Look up invigilate at
1550s, from Latin invigilatus, past participle of invigilare "watch over, be watchful, be devoted," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + vigilare (see vigil). Especially in reference to student exams. Related: Invigilated; invigilating.
invigilator (n.) Look up invigilator at
1892, agent noun from invigilate.
invigorate (v.) Look up invigorate at
1640s, from in- (2) + vigor + -ate (2). Earlier verb was envigor (1610s). Related: Invigorated; invigorating.
invigorating (adj.) Look up invigorating at
1690s, adjective from present participle of invigorate. Related: Invigoratingly.
invigoration (n.) Look up invigoration at
1660s, noun of action from invigorate.
invincibility (n.) Look up invincibility at
1670s, from invincible + -ity.
invincible (adj.) Look up invincible at
early 15c., from Middle French invincible (14c.) or directly from Latin invincibilis "unconquerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vincibilis "conquerable," from vincere "to overcome" (see victor). Related: Invincibly. Noun meaning "one who is invincible" is from 1630s. Invincible ignorance is from Church Latin ignorantia invincibilis (Aquinas). Related: Invincibly.
inviolability (n.) Look up inviolability at
1793, from inviolable + -ity.
inviolable (adj.) Look up inviolable at
mid-15c., from Latin inviolabilis "inviolable, invulnerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violabilis, from violare "to do violence to" (see violation). Related: Inviolably.
inviolate (adj.) Look up inviolate at
"unbroken, intact," early 15c., from Latin inviolatus “unhurt,” from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violatus (see violation).
invisibility (n.) Look up invisibility at
1560s, from Late Latin invisibilitas, from invisibilis (see invisible).
invisible (adj.) Look up invisible at
mid-14c., from Old French invisible (13c.), from Latin invisibilis "unseen, invisible," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + visibilis (see visible). As a noun, "things invisible," from 1640s. Invisible Man is from H.G. Wells's novel (1897). Related: Invisibly.
invision (n.) Look up invision at
"want of vision," 1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + vision.
invita Minerva Look up invita Minerva at
Latin, literally "Minerva (goddess of wisdom) unwilling;" i.e. "without inspiration, not being in the mood for it."
invitation (n.) Look up invitation at
mid-15c., from Latin invitationem (nominative invitatio) "an invitation, incitement, challenge," noun of action from past participle stem of invitare "invite, treat, entertain," originally "be pleasant toward," from in- "toward" (see in- (2)). Second element is obscure; Watkins suggests a suffixed form of root *weie- "to go after something, pursue with vigor," and a connection to English gain (see venison). Meaning "the spoken or written form in which a person is invited" is from 1610s.
invite (v.) Look up invite at
1530s, a back-formation from invitation, or else from Middle French inviter, from Latin invitare "to invite," also "to summon, challenge." As a noun variant of invitation it is attested from 1650s. Related: Invited; inviting.
invite (n.) Look up invite at
1650s, from invite (v.).
invitee (n.) Look up invitee at
1837, from invite (v.) + -ee.
inviting (adj.) Look up inviting at
“attractive, alluring,” c. 1600, from present participle of invite (v.).
invocation (n.) Look up invocation at
late 14c., "petition (to God or a god) for aid or comfort; invocation, prayer;" also "a summoning of evil spirits," from Old French invocacion (12c.), from Latin invocationem (nominative invocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of invocare "to call upon, invoke, appeal to" (see invoke).
invoice (n.) Look up invoice at
1550s, apparently from Middle French envois, plural of envoi "dispatch (of goods)," literally "a sending," from envoyer "to send" (see envoy). As a verb, 1690s, from the noun.
invoke (v.) Look up invoke at
late 15c., from Middle French envoquer (12c.), from Latin invocare "call upon, implore," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + vocare "to call," related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (see voice (n.)). Related: Invoked; invoking.
involuntary (adj.) Look up involuntary at
mid-15c., from Late Latin involuntarius "involuntary," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin voluntarius (see voluntary). Related: Involuntarily.
involute (adj.) Look up involute at
early 15c., from Latin involutus "rolled up, intricate, obscure," past participle of involvere (see involve).
involution (n.) Look up involution at
late 14c., from Latin involutionem (nominative involutio) "a rolling up," noun of action from past participle stem of involvere (see involve). Related: Involutional.
involve (v.) Look up involve at
late 14c., "envelop, surround," from Latin involvere "envelop, surround, overwhelm," literally "roll into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + volvere "to roll" (see volvox). Originally "envelop, surround," sense of "take in, include" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Involved; Involving.
involved (adj.) Look up involved at
"complicated," 1640s, past participle adjective from involve.
involvement (n.) Look up involvement at
1706, from involve + -ment.
invulnerability (n.) Look up invulnerability at
1775, from invulnerable + -ity.
invulnerable (adj.) Look up invulnerable at
1590s, from Latin invulnerabilis "invulnerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vulnerabilis (see vulnerable). Related: Invulnerably.
inward Look up inward at
Old English inweard, inneweard (adj., adv.) "inmost; sincere; internal, intrinsic; deep," from Proto-Germanic *inwarth "inward" (cognates: Old Norse innanverðr, Old High German inwart, Middle Dutch inwaert), from root of Old English inne "in" (see in) + -weard (see -ward).
inwardly (adv.) Look up inwardly at
Old English inweardlice; see inward + -ly (2).
inwardness (n.) Look up inwardness at
late 14c., from inward + -ness.
inwit (n.) Look up inwit at
Middle English word meaning "conscience" (early 13c.), "reason, intellect" (c. 1300), from in (adv.) + wit (n.). Not related to Old English inwit, which meant "deceit." Joyce's use in "Ulysses" (1922), which echoes the 14c. work "Ayenbite of Inwyt," is perhaps the best-known example of the modern use of the word as a conscious archaism.
Þese ben also þy fyve inwyttys: Wyl, Resoun, Mynd, Ymaginacioun, and Thoght [Wyclif, c. 1380]

If ... such good old English words as inwit and wanhope should be rehabilitated (and they have been pushing up their heads for thirty years), we should gain a great deal. [Robert Bridges, 1922]
Io Look up Io at
in Greek mythology, daughter of the river god Inachus, she was pursued by Zeus and consequently changed into a heifer. The Jovian moon was discovered in 1610 and named for her by Galileo.
iodide (n.) Look up iodide at
from comb. form of iodine + -ide.
iodine (n.) Look up iodine at
1814, formed by English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) from French iode "iodine," coined 1812 by French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac from Greek ioeides "violet-colored," from ion "the violet; dark blue flower," + eidos "appearance" (see -oid). Davy added the chemical suffix -ine (2) to make it analogous with chlorine and fluorine. So called from the color of the vapor given off when the crystals are heated.
iodize (v.) Look up iodize at
1841, from comb. form of iodine + -ize. Related: Iodized; iodizing.
ion (n.) Look up ion at
1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath), coined from Greek ion, neuter present participle of ienai "go," from PIE root *ei- (1) "to go, to walk" (cognates: Greek eimi "I go;" Latin ire "to go," iter "a way;" Old Irish ethaim "I go;" Irish bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way"), Gaulish eimu "we go," Gothic iddja "went," Sanskrit e'ti "goes," imas "we go," ayanam "a going, way;" Avestan ae'iti "goes;" Old Persian aitiy "goes;" Lithuanian eiti "to go;" Old Church Slavonic iti "go;" Bulgarian ida "I go;" Russian idti "to go"). So called because ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge.
Ionian (adj.) Look up Ionian at
"of Ionia," the districts of ancient Greece inhabited by the Ionians (including Attica and the north coast of the Peloponnesus, but especially the coastal strip of Asia Minor, including the islands of Samos and Chios). The name (which Herodotus credits to an ancestral Ion, son of Apollo and Creusa) probably is pre-Greek, perhaps related to Sanskrit yoni "womb, vulva," and a reference to goddess-worshipping people.

Also used of the sea that lies between Italy and the northern Peloponnesus (1630s). The musical Ionian mode (1844) corresponds to our basic major scale but was characterized by the Greeks as soft and effeminate, as were the Ionians generally.
The Ionians delighted in wanton dances and songs more than the rest of the Greeks ... and wanton gestures were proverbially termed Ionic motions. [Thomas Robinson, "Archæologica Græca," 1807]
Ionic (adj.) Look up Ionic at
"pertaining to Ionia," 1570s of music; 1580s of architecture, from Latin Ionicus, from Greek Ionikos (see Ionian).
ionic (adj.) Look up ionic at
"pertaining to ions," 1890, from ion + -ic.
ionization (n.) Look up ionization at
1891; see ionize + -ation.
ionize (v.) Look up ionize at
1896, from ion + -ize. Related: Ionized; ionizing.
ionosphere (n.) Look up ionosphere at
1926, from ion + sphere. Coined by Scottish radar pioneer Robert A. Watson-Watt (1892-1973). So called because it contains many ions.
iota (n.) Look up iota at
"very small amount," 1630s, figurative use of iota, ninth and smallest letter in the Greek alphabet. Modern use is after Matt. v:18 (see jot), but iota in classical Greek also was proverbially used of anything very small. The letter name is from Semitic (compare Hebrew yodh).
IOU. Look up IOU. at
also I.O.U., I O U, 1610s, originally written IOV (see V); a punning reference to "I Owe You."