inverse (adj.) Look up inverse at
mid-15c., from Latin inversus, past participle of invertere (see invert). Related: Inversely. As a noun, 1680s, from the adjective.
inversion (n.) Look up inversion at
1550s, from Latin inversionem (nominative inversio) "an inversion," noun of action from past participle stem of invertere (see invert).
invert (v.) Look up invert at
1530s, from Middle French invertir or directly from Latin invertere "turn upside down, turn about," from in- "in, on" (see in- (2)) + vertere "to turn" (see versus). Related: Inverted; inverting; invertedly.
invertebrate (n.) Look up invertebrate at
1826, from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vertebra "joint" (see vertebra). Invertebrata as a biological classification was coined 1805 by French naturalist Georges Léopole Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron Cuvier (1769-1832). As an adjective by 1838.
invest (v.) Look up invest at
late 14c., "to clothe in the official robes of an office," from Latin investire "to clothe in, cover, surround," from in "in, into" (see in- (2)) + vestire "to dress, clothe" (see wear (v.)). The meaning "use money to produce profit" first attested 1610s in connection with the East Indies trade, and is probably a borrowing of Italian investire (13c.) from the same Latin root, via the notion of giving one's capital a new form. The military meaning "to besiege" is from c. 1600. Related: Invested; investing.
investigable (adj.) Look up investigable at
c. 1400, from Late Latin investigabilis "that may be searched into," from investigare (see investigation).
investigate (v.) Look up investigate at
c. 1500, back-formation from investigation, or else from Latin investigatus, past participle of investigare "to trace out, search after" (see investigation). Related: Investigated; investigating.
investigation (n.) Look up investigation at
early 15c., from Old French investigacion (14c.), from Latin investigationem (nominative investigatio) "a searching into, a searching for," noun of action from past participle stem of investigare "to trace out, search after," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + vestigare "to track, trace," from vestigium "footprint, track" (see vestige).
investigative (adj.) Look up investigative at
1803, from Latin investigat-, past participle stem of investigare (see investigation) + -ive. Journalism sense is from 1951.
investigator (n.) Look up investigator at
1550s, a native agent-noun formation from investigate, or else from Latin investigator "he that searches into," agent noun from past participle stem of investigare (see investigation).
investiture (n.) Look up investiture at
late 14c., from Medieval Latin investitura, from past participle stem of Latin investire "to clothe" (see invest).
investment (n.) Look up investment at
1590s, "act of putting on vestments" (a sense now found in investiture); later "act of being invested with an office, right, endowment, etc." (1640s); and "surrounding and besieging of a military target" (1811); see invest + -ment. Commercial sense is from 1610s, originally of the finances of the East India Company; general use is from 1740 in the sense of "conversion of money to property in hopes of profit," and by 1837 in the sense "amount of money so invested; property viewed as a vehicle for profit." For evolution of commercial senses, see invest.
investor (n.) Look up investor at
1580s, "one who clothes;" 1862, "one who invests money," agent noun from invest.
inveteracy (n.) Look up inveteracy at
1690s, from inveterate + -cy.
inveterate (adj.) Look up inveterate at
late 14c., from Latin inveteratus "of long standing, chronic," past participle of inveterare "become old in," from in- "in, into" (see in- (2)) + veterare "to make old," from vetus (genitive veteris) "old" (see veteran).
inviable (adj.) Look up inviable at
1918, from in- (1) "not" + viable. Related: Inviability.
invictus Look up invictus at
Latin adjective, "unconquered, unsubdued, invincible."
invidious (adj.) Look up invidious at
c. 1600, from Latin invidiosus "full of envy, envious," from invidia "envy, grudge, jealousy, ill will" (see envy). Related: Invidiously; invidiousness.
invigilate (v.) Look up invigilate at
1550s, from Latin invigilatus, past participle of invigilare "watch over, be watchful, be devoted," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + vigilare (see vigil). Especially in reference to student exams. Related: Invigilated; invigilating.
invigilator (n.) Look up invigilator at
1892, agent noun from invigilate.
invigorate (v.) Look up invigorate at
1640s, from in- (2) + vigor + -ate (2). Earlier verb was envigor (1610s). Related: Invigorated; invigorating.
invigorating (adj.) Look up invigorating at
1690s, adjective from present participle of invigorate. Related: Invigoratingly.
invigoration (n.) Look up invigoration at
1660s, noun of action from invigorate.
invincibility (n.) Look up invincibility at
1670s, from invincible + -ity.
invincible (adj.) Look up invincible at
early 15c., from Middle French invincible (14c.) or directly from Latin invincibilis "unconquerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vincibilis "conquerable," from vincere "to overcome" (see victor). Related: Invincibly. Noun meaning "one who is invincible" is from 1630s. Invincible ignorance is from Church Latin ignorantia invincibilis (Aquinas). Related: Invincibly.
inviolability (n.) Look up inviolability at
1793, from inviolable + -ity.
inviolable (adj.) Look up inviolable at
mid-15c., from Latin inviolabilis "inviolable, invulnerable," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violabilis, from violare "to do violence to" (see violation). Related: Inviolably.
inviolate (adj.) Look up inviolate at
"unbroken, intact," early 15c., from Latin inviolatus “unhurt,” from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + violatus (see violation).
invisibility (n.) Look up invisibility at
1560s, from Late Latin invisibilitas, from invisibilis (see invisible).
invisible (adj.) Look up invisible at
mid-14c., from Old French invisible (13c.), from Latin invisibilis "unseen, invisible," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + visibilis (see visible). As a noun, "things invisible," from 1640s. Invisible Man is from H.G. Wells's novel (1897). Related: Invisibly.
invision (n.) Look up invision at
"want of vision," 1640s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + vision.
invita Minerva Look up invita Minerva at
Latin, literally "Minerva (goddess of wisdom) unwilling;" i.e. "without inspiration, not being in the mood for it."
invitation (n.) Look up invitation at
mid-15c., from Latin invitationem (nominative invitatio) "an invitation, incitement, challenge," noun of action from past participle stem of invitare "invite, treat, entertain," originally "be pleasant toward," from in- "toward" (see in- (2)). Second element is obscure; Watkins suggests a suffixed form of root *weie- "to go after something, pursue with vigor," and a connection to English gain (see venison). Meaning "the spoken or written form in which a person is invited" is from 1610s.
invite (v.) Look up invite at
1530s, a back-formation from invitation, or else from Middle French inviter, from Latin invitare "to invite," also "to summon, challenge." As a noun variant of invitation it is attested from 1650s. Related: Invited; inviting.
invite (n.) Look up invite at
1650s, from invite (v.).
invitee (n.) Look up invitee at
1837, from invite (v.) + -ee.
inviting (adj.) Look up inviting at
“attractive, alluring,” c. 1600, from present participle of invite (v.).
invocation (n.) Look up invocation at
late 14c., "petition (to God or a god) for aid or comfort; invocation, prayer;" also "a summoning of evil spirits," from Old French invocacion (12c.), from Latin invocationem (nominative invocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of invocare "to call upon, invoke, appeal to" (see invoke).
invoice (n.) Look up invoice at
1550s, apparently from Middle French envois, plural of envoi "dispatch (of goods)," literally "a sending," from envoyer "to send" (see envoy). As a verb, 1690s, from the noun.
invoke (v.) Look up invoke at
late 15c., from Middle French envoquer (12c.), from Latin invocare "call upon, implore," from in- "upon" (see in- (2)) + vocare "to call," related to vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (see voice (n.)). Related: Invoked; invoking.
involuntary (adj.) Look up involuntary at
mid-15c., from Late Latin involuntarius "involuntary," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin voluntarius (see voluntary). Related: Involuntarily.
involute (adj.) Look up involute at
early 15c., from Latin involutus "rolled up, intricate, obscure," past participle of involvere (see involve).
involution (n.) Look up involution at
late 14c., from Latin involutionem (nominative involutio) "a rolling up," noun of action from past participle stem of involvere (see involve). Related: Involutional.
involve (v.) Look up involve at
late 14c., "envelop, surround," from Latin involvere "envelop, surround, overwhelm," literally "roll into," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + volvere "to roll" (see volvox). Originally "envelop, surround," sense of "take in, include" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Involved; Involving.
involved (adj.) Look up involved at
"complicated," 1640s, past participle adjective from involve.
involvement (n.) Look up involvement at
1706, from involve + -ment.
invulnerability (n.) Look up invulnerability at
1775, from invulnerable + -ity.
invulnerable (adj.) Look up invulnerable at
1590s, from Latin invulnerabilis "invulnerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vulnerabilis (see vulnerable). Related: Invulnerably.
inward Look up inward at
Old English inweard, inneweard (adj., adv.) "inmost; sincere; internal, intrinsic; deep," from Proto-Germanic *inwarth "inward" (cognates: Old Norse innanverðr, Old High German inwart, Middle Dutch inwaert), from root of Old English inne "in" (see in) + -weard (see -ward).
inwardly (adv.) Look up inwardly at
Old English inweardlice; see inward + -ly (2).