invitatory (adj.) Look up invitatory at
1640s, from Latin invitatorius "inviting," from invitat-, past participle stem of invitare "to invite, treat, entertain" (see invitation).
invite (n.) Look up invite at
"an invitation," 1650s, from invite (v.).
invite (v.) Look up invite at
"solicit to come," 1530s, a back-formation from invitation, or else from Middle French inviter (15c.), from Latin invitare "to invite," also "to summon, challenge; to feast, to entertain," a word of uncertain origin. Related: Invited; inviting.
invitee (n.) Look up invitee at
1837, from invite (v.) + -ee.
inviting (adj.) Look up inviting at
"attractive, alluring," c. 1600, present-participle adjective from invite (v.). Related: Invitingly.
invocation (n.) Look up invocation at
late 14c., "petition (to God or a god) for aid or comfort; invocation, prayer;" also "a summoning of evil spirits," from Old French invocacion "appeal, invocation" (12c.), from Latin invocationem (nominative invocatio), noun of action from past participle stem of invocare "to call upon, invoke, appeal to" (see invoke).
invoice (n.) Look up invoice at
"written account of the particulars and prices of merchandise shipped or sent," 1550s, apparently from a re-Latinized form of Middle French envois, plural of envoi "dispatch (of goods)," literally "a sending," from envoyer "to send," from Vulgar Latin *inviare "send on one's way," from Latin in "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + via "road" (see via (adv.)). As a verb, 1690s, from the noun.
invoke (v.) Look up invoke at
late 15c., from Old French invoquer, envoquer, envochier "invoke, implore" (12c.), from Latin invocare "call upon, implore," from in- "upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + vocare "to call," related to noun vox (genitive vocis) "voice" (from PIE root *wekw- "to speak"). Related: Invoked; invoking.
involuntary (adj.) Look up involuntary at
mid-15c., from Late Latin involuntarius "involuntary, unwilling," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Latin voluntarius "willing, voluntarily" (see voluntary). Related: Involuntarily.
involute (adj.) Look up involute at
early 15c., "wrapped," from Latin involutus "rolled up, intricate, obscure," past participle of involvere "envelop, surround; roll into, wrap up" (see involve).
involution (n.) Look up involution at
late 14c., "condition of being twisted or coiled; a fold or entanglement," originally in anatomy, from Late Latin involutionem (nominative involutio) "a rolling up," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin involvere "envelop, surround, roll into" (see involve). Related: Involutional.
involve (v.) Look up involve at
late 14c., "envelop, surround; make cloudy or obscure," from Old French involver and directly from Latin involvere "envelop, surround, overwhelm," literally "roll into," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + volvere "to roll," from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve." Mid-15c. as "concern oneself." Sense of "take in, include" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Involved; Involving.
Obscurest night involved the sky,
The Atlantic billows roared,
[Cowper, "The Castaway"]
involved (adj.) Look up involved at
"complicated," 1640s, past participle adjective from involve. Earlier it meant "spirally curved" (1610s).
involvement (n.) Look up involvement at
1706, from involve + -ment.
invulnerability (n.) Look up invulnerability at
1707, from invulnerable + -ity.
invulnerable (adj.) Look up invulnerable at
1590s, from Latin invulnerabilis "invulnerable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + vulnerabilis (see vulnerable). Related: Invulnerably.
inward (adj.) Look up inward at
Old English inweard "inmost; sincere; internal, intrinsic; deep," from Proto-Germanic *inwarth "inward" (source also of Old Norse innanverðr, Old High German inwart, Middle Dutch inwaert), from root of Old English inne "in" (see in (adv.)) + -weard (see -ward). As an adverb, Old English inneweard. As a noun in late Old English, "entrails, intestines."
inwardly (adv.) Look up inwardly at
Old English inweardlice; see inward + -ly (2).
inwardness (n.) Look up inwardness at
late 14c., from inward + -ness.
inwit (n.) Look up inwit at
Middle English word formed to translate Latin conscientia; early 13c., "conscience;" c. 1300, "reason, intellect," from in (adj.) + wit (n.). Not related to Old English inwit, which meant "deceit." Joyce's use of it in "Ulysses" (1922) echoes the title of the 14c. work "Ayenbite of Inwyt" ("Remorse of Conscience," a translation from French), is perhaps the best-known example of the modern use of the word as a conscious archaism, but not the earliest.
Þese ben also þy fyve inwyttys: Wyl, Resoun, Mynd, Ymaginacioun, and Thoght [Wyclif, c. 1380]

If ... such good old English words as inwit and wanhope should be rehabilitated (and they have been pushing up their heads for thirty years), we should gain a great deal. [Robert Bridges, English poet laureate, 1922]
inwork (v.) Look up inwork at
1680s, from in (adv.) + work (v.).
Io Look up Io at
in Greek mythology, daughter of the river god Inachus, she was pursued by Zeus, who changed her to a heifer in a bid to escape the notice of Juno, but she was tormented by a gadfly sent by Juno. The Jovian moon was discovered in 1610 and named for her by Galileo.
iodic (adj.) Look up iodic at
1815, from French iodic (1812); see iodine + -ic.
iodide (n.) Look up iodide at
compound of iodine, 1822, from iod-, comb. form of iodine used before vowels + -ide.
iodine (n.) Look up iodine at
non-metallic element, 1814, formed by English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) from French iode "iodine," which was coined 1812 by French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac from Greek ioeides "violet-colored" (from ion "the violet; dark blue flower;" see violet) + eidos "appearance" (see -oid).

Davy added the chemical suffix -ine (2) to make it analogous with chlorine and fluorine. So called from the color of the vapor given off when the crystals are heated.
iodize (v.) Look up iodize at
"add iodine to, treat with iodine," 1841, from iodine + -ize. Related: Iodized; iodizing.
ion (n.) Look up ion at
1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath), coined from Greek ion, neuter present participle of ienai "go," from PIE root *ei- "to go." So called because ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge.
Ionian (adj.) Look up Ionian at
1590s, "of Ionia," the districts of ancient Greece inhabited by the Ionians, one of the three (or four) great divisions of the ancient Greek people. The name (which Herodotus credits to an ancestral Ion, son of Apollo and Creusa) probably is pre-Greek, perhaps related to Sanskrit yoni "womb, vulva," and a reference to goddess-worshipping people. As a noun from 1560s.

Ionia included Attica, Euboea, and the north coast of the Peloponnesus, but it especially referred to the coastal strip of Asia Minor, including the islands of Samos and Chios. The old Ionic dialect was the language of Homer and Herodotus, and, via its later form, Attic, that of all the great works of the Greeks. The name also was given to the sea that lies between Sicily and Greece, and the islands in it (1630s in English in this sense). The musical Ionian mode (1844) corresponds to our C-major scale but was characterized by the Greeks as soft and effeminate, as were the Ionians generally.
The Ionians delighted in wanton dances and songs more than the rest of the Greeks ... and wanton gestures were proverbially termed Ionic motions. [Thomas Robinson, "Archæologica Græca," 1807]
ionic (adj.) Look up ionic at
"pertaining to ions," 1890, from ion + -ic.
Ionic (adj.) Look up Ionic at
"pertaining to Ionia or the Ionians," 1570s of music; 1580s of architecture, from Latin Ionicus, from Greek Ionikos (see Ionian). In prosody, a foot of two long syllables followed by two short. The Ionic school of philosophers (Thales, Anaxamander, etc.) studied the material world in ways that somewhat anticipated observational science. It also once was the name of an important school of Greek painting, but all of it save the name is lost. Related: Ionicize (1841).
ionization (n.) Look up ionization at
1891; see ionize + noun ending -ation.
ionize (v.) Look up ionize at
1896, from ion + -ize. Related: Ionized; ionizing. Unrelated to Ionize "to make Ionic in form or fact" (1816), for which see Ionian.
ionosphere (n.) Look up ionosphere at
region of the outer atmosphere, 1926, from ion + sphere. Coined by Scottish radar pioneer Robert A. Watson-Watt (1892-1973). So called because it contains many ions.
iopterous (adj.) Look up iopterous at
"having violet wings," 1855, from Greek ion "violet, violet color" (see iodine) + pteron "wing" (see ptero-).
iota (n.) Look up iota at
"very small amount," 1630s, figurative use of iota, ninth and smallest letter in the Greek alphabet (corresponding to Latin -i-). Its use in this sense is after Matthew v.18 (see jot (n.), which is the earlier form of the name in English), but iota in classical Greek also was proverbially used of anything very small. The letter name is from Semitic (compare Phoenician and Hebrew yodh).
IOU Look up IOU at
also I.O.U., I O U, 1610s, originally written IOV (see V); a punning on "I Owe You." "A memorandum or acknowledgement of debt less formal than a promissory note, because no direct promise to pay is expressed." [Century Dictionary]
Iowa Look up Iowa at
organized as a U.S. territory 1838; admitted as a state 1846, named for the river, ultimately from the name of the native people, of the Chiwere branch of the Aiouan family; said to be from Dakota ayuxba "sleepy ones," or from an Algonquian language (Bright cites Miami/Illinois /aayohoowia/). On a French map of 1673 it appears as Ouaouiatonon. Related: Iowan.
IPA (n.) Look up IPA at
also I.P.A., 1952, abbreviation of India pale ale.
ipecac (n.) Look up ipecac at
dried root of a South American shrub, used as an emetic, purgative, nauseant, etc., 1710, borrowing via Portuguese of a shortened form of Tupi ipecacuana (a word attested in English from 1682), a medicinal plant of Brazil. The Indian word is said to mean "small plant causing vomit."
ipse dixit Look up ipse dixit at
Latin, literally "he (the master) said it," translation of Greek autos epha, phrase used by disciples of Pythagoras when quoting their master. Hence, "an assertion made without proof, resting entirely on the authority of the speaker" (1590s), ipsedixitism "practice of dogmatic assertion" (1830, Bentham), etc.
ipseity (n.) Look up ipseity at
"personal identity, individuality, selfhood," 1650s, from Latin ipse "self" + -ity.
ipsilateral (adj.) Look up ipsilateral at
"on the same side of the body," 1907, from Latin ipse "self" + lateral (adj.). Related: Ipsilaterally.
ipso facto Look up ipso facto at
Latin adverbial phrase, literally "by that very fact, by the fact itself," from neuter ablative of ipse "he, himself, self" + ablative of factum "fact" (see fact).
ir- Look up ir- at
assimilated form of the two Latin prefixes in- "not," or "in" (see in-) before -r-.
Ira Look up Ira at
masc. proper name, from Hebrew, literally "watchful," from stem of 'ur "to awake, to rouse oneself."
iracund (adj.) Look up iracund at
"angry, inclined to wrath," 1707, from Late Latin iracundus, from ira "anger, wrath, rage, passion" (see ire (n.)). Related: Iracundulous (1765).
[T]he Severn is so mischievous and cholerick a river, and so often ruins the country with sudden inundations, since it rises in Wales, and consequently participates sometimes of the nature of that hasty, iracund people among whom 'tis born. [Thomas Browne, "Letters from the Dead to the Living," 1707]
Iran Look up Iran at
country name, from Persian Iran, from Middle Persian Ērān "(land) of the Iranians," genitive plural of ēr- "an Iranian," from Old Iranian *arya- (Old Persian ariya-, Avestan airya-) "Iranian", from Indo-Iranian *arya- or *ārya-, a self-designation, perhaps meaning "compatriot" (see Aryan).

In English it began to be used 1760s, by orientalists and linguists (Alexander Dow, William Jones), in historical contexts, and usually with a footnote identifying it with modern Persia; as recently as 1903 "Century Dictionary" defined it as "the ancient name of the region lying between Kurdistan and India." In 1935 the government of Reza Shah Pahlavi requested governments with which it had diplomatic relations to call his country Iran, after the indigenous name, rather than the Greek-derived Persia.
Iranian (adj.) Look up Iranian at
1788, "of or pertaining to (ancient) Persia," from Iran + -ian. From 1839 in reference to the language. As a noun, "an inhabitant of Persia" (1792), later "the language of Persia" (1850). Iranic (adj.) is from 1847.
Iraq Look up Iraq at
country name, 1920, from an Arabic name attested since 6c. for the region known in Greek as Mesopotamia; often said to be from Arabic `araqa, covering notions such as "perspiring, deeply rooted, well-watered," which may reflect the desert Arabs' impression of the lush river-land. But the name might be from, or influenced by, Sumerian Uruk (Biblical Erech), anciently a prominent city in what is now southern Iraq (from Sumerian uru "city"). Related: Iraqi (attested in English from 1777, in reference to regional Mesopotamian music or dialects).
irascibility (n.) Look up irascibility at
1701, from irascible + -ity.