mobocracy (n.) Look up mobocracy at
"mob rule," 1754, a hybrid from mob (n.) + -cracy. Related: Mobocrat; mobocratic.
mobster (n.) Look up mobster at
1916, from mob (n.) in the criminal sense + -ster.
moccasin (n.) Look up moccasin at
"North American Indian shoe" (made of deerskin or soft leather), 1610s, from an Algonquian language of Virginia, probably Powhatan makasin "shoe," from Central Atlantic Coast Algonquian *mockasin, similar to Southern New England Algonquian *makkusin, Munsee Delaware mahkusin, Ojibwa makizin. The venomous snake of southern U.S. (1784) is perhaps a different word, but Bright regards them as identical.
mocha (n.) Look up mocha at
1733, "fine coffee," from Mocha, Red Sea port of Yemen, from which coffee was exported. Meaning "mixture of coffee and chocolate" first recorded 1849. As a shade of dark brown, it is attested from 1895.
mock (v.) Look up mock at
early 15c., "to deceive;" mid-15c. "make fun of," from Old French mocquer "deride, jeer," of unknown origin, perhaps from Vulgar Latin *muccare "to blow the nose" (as a derisive gesture), from Latin mucus; or possibly from Middle Dutch mocken "to mumble" or Middle Low German mucken "grumble." Or perhaps simply imitative of such speech. Related: Mocked; mocking; mockingly. Replaced Old English bysmerian. Sense of "imitating," as in mockingbird and mock turtle (1763), is from notion of derisive imitation.
mock (adj.) Look up mock at
1540s, from mock, verb and noun. Mock-heroic is attested from 1711, describing a satirical use of a serious form; mock-turtle "calf's head dressed to resemble a turtle," is from 1763; as a kind of soup from 1783.
mock (n.) Look up mock at
"derisive action or speech," early 15c., from mock (v.).
mocker (n.) Look up mocker at
late 15c., agent noun from mock (v.).
mockery (n.) Look up mockery at
early 15c., from Old French moquerie "sneering, mockery, sarcasm" (13c.), from moquer (see mock (v.)).
mockingbird (n.) Look up mockingbird at
also mocking-bird, 1670s, from mocking (adj.), 1520s, from present participle of mock (v.) + bird (n.1). Earlier form was mock-bird (1640s).
mockup (n.) Look up mockup at
also mock-up, "model, simulation" 1919, perhaps World War I, from mock (v.) + up (adv.). The verbal phrase mock up is attested from 1911.
mod (n.1) Look up mod at
"tidy, sophisticated teen" (usually contrasted with rocker), 1960, slang shortening of modern.
mod (n.2) Look up mod at
short for modification, c. 1920, originally among aviators.
modal (adj.) Look up modal at
1560s, term in logic, from Middle French modal and directly from Medieval Latin modalis "of or pertaining to a mode," from Latin modus "measure, manner, mode" (see mode (n.1)). Musical sense is from 1590s.
modality (n.) Look up modality at
1610s, from Old French modalité or directly from Medieval Latin modalitatem (nominative modalitas) "a being modal," from modalis (see modal). Related: Modalities.
mode (n.1) Look up mode at
"manner," late 14c., "kind of musical scale," from Latin modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style" (in Late Latin also "mood" in grammar and logic), from PIE root *med- "to measure, limit, consider, advise, take appropriate measures" (see medical). Meaning "manner in which a thing is done" first recorded 1660s.
mode (n.2) Look up mode at
"current fashion," 1640s, from French mode "manner, fashion, style" (15c.), from Latin modus "manner" (see mode (n.1)).
model (n.) Look up model at
1570s, "likeness made to scale; architect's set of designs," from Middle French modelle (16c., Modern French modèle), from Italian modello "a model, mold," from Vulgar Latin *modellus, from Latin modulus "a small measure, standard," diminutive of modus "manner, measure" (see mode (n.1)).

Sense of "thing or person to be imitated" is 1630s. Meaning "motor vehicle of a particular design" is from 1900 (such as Model T, 1908; Ford's other early models included C, F, and B). Sense of "artist's model" is first recorded 1690s; that of "fashion model" is from 1904. German, Swedish modell, Dutch, Danish model are from French or Italian.
model (v.) Look up model at
1660s, "fashion in clay or wax," from model (n.). Earlier was modelize (c. 1600). From 1915 in the sense "to act as a fashion model, to display (clothes)." Related: Modeled; modeling; modelled; modelling.
model (adj.) Look up model at
1844, from model (n.).
modeling (n.) Look up modeling at
also modelling, 1650s, "action of bringing into desired condition," verbal noun from model (v.). Meaning "action of making models" (in clay, wax, etc.) is from 1799. Meaning "work of a fashion model" is from 1941.
modem (n.) Look up modem at
"device to convert digital signals to analog and vice versa," 1958, coined from first elements of modulator + demodulator.
Modena Look up Modena at
Italian city, the name probably is from a pre-Latin language, but folk etymology connects it with Mutina, epithet of the nymph Lara who was stricken dumb by Zeus in punishment for her loquacity, from Latin mutus. Related: Modenese.
moderate (adj.) Look up moderate at
late 14c., originally of weather and other physical conditions, from Latin moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," related to modus "measure," from PIE *med-es-, from base *med- (see medical (adj.)). The notion is "keeping within due measure." In English, of persons from early 15c.; of opinions from 1640s; of prices from 1904. Related: Moderateness.
moderate (v.) Look up moderate at
early 15c., "to abate excessiveness;" from Latin moderatus, past participle of moderari (see moderate (adj.)). Meaning "to preside over a debate" is first attested 1570s. Related: Moderated; moderating.
moderate (n.) Look up moderate at
"one who holds moderate opinions on controversial subjects," 1794, from moderate (adj.). Related: Moderatism; -moderantism.
moderately (adv.) Look up moderately at
late 14c., from moderate (adj.) + -ly (2).
moderation (n.) Look up moderation at
early 15c., from Old French moderacion (14c.) "alteration, modification; mitigation, alleviation," from Latin moderationem (nominative moderatio) "a controlling, guidance, government, regulation; moderation, temperateness, self-control," noun of action from moderatus (see moderate (adj.)).
moderator (n.) Look up moderator at
late 14c., "ruler, governor," from Latin moderator "manager, ruler, director," literally "he who moderates," from moderatus (see moderate (adj.)). Meaning "one who acts as an umpire" is from 1560s. Fem. form moderatrix attested from 1530s.
modern (adj.) Look up modern at
c. 1500, "now existing;" 1580s, "of or pertaining to present or recent times;" from Middle French moderne (15c.) and directly from Late Latin modernus "modern" (Priscian, Cassiodorus), from Latin modo "just now, in a (certain) manner," from modo (adv.) "to the measure," ablative of modus "manner, measure" (see mode (n.1)). Extended form modern-day attested from 1909.

In Shakespeare, often with a sense of "every-day, ordinary, commonplace." Slang abbreviation mod first attested 1960. Modern art is from 1807 (by contrast to ancient); modern dance first attested 1912; first record of modern jazz is from 1954. Modern conveniences first recorded 1926.
modern (n.) Look up modern at
1580s, "person of the present time" (contrasted to ancient, from modern (adj.). From 1897 as "one who is up to date."
modernism (n.) Look up modernism at
1737, "deviation from the ancient and classical manner" [Johnson, who calls it "a word invented by Swift"], from modern + -ism. From 1830 as "modern ways and styles." Used in theology since 1901. As a movement in the arts (away from classical or traditional modes), from 1929.
modernist (n.) Look up modernist at
1580s, "a modern person," from modern + -ist. Later, "a supporter of the modern" (as opposed to the classical), c. 1700. As a follower of a movement in the arts (modernism), attested from 1927.
modernistic (adj.) Look up modernistic at
1878, from modernist + -ic.
modernity (n.) Look up modernity at
1620s, from Medieval Latin modernitatem, noun of quality from modernus (see modern).
modernization (n.) Look up modernization at
1770, from modernize + -ation.
modernize (v.) Look up modernize at
1748, from modern + -ize, or from French moderniser. Related: Modernized; modernizing; modernizer.
modest (adj.) Look up modest at
1560s, "having moderate self-regard," from Middle French modeste (14c.), from Latin modestus "keeping due measure" (see modesty). Of women, "not improper or lewd," 1590s; of female attire, 1610s. Of demands, etc., c. 1600. Related: Modestly.
modesty (n.) Look up modesty at
1530s, "freedom from exaggeration, self-control," from Middle French modestie or directly from Latin modestia "moderation, sense of honor, correctness of conduct," from modestus "moderate, keeping measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (see mode (n.1)). Meaning "quality of having a moderate opinion of oneself" is from 1550s; that of "womanly propriety" is from 1560s.
La pudeur donne des plaisirs bien flatteurs à l'amant: elle lui fait sentir quelles lois l'on transgresse pour lui; (Modesty both pleases and flatters a lover, for it lays stress on the laws which are being transgressed for his sake.) [Stendhal "de l'Amour," 1822]
modicum (n.) Look up modicum at
"small quantity or portion," late 15c., Scottish, from Latin modicum "a little," noun use of neuter of modicus "moderate, having a proper measure; ordinary, scanty, small, few," from modus "measure, manner" (see mode (n.1)).
modification (n.) Look up modification at
c. 1500, in philosophy, from Middle French modification (14c.) and directly from Latin modificationem (nominative modificatio) "a measuring," noun of action from past participle stem of modificare (see modify). Meaning "alteration to an object to bring it up to date" is from 1774. Biological sense is attested by 1896.
modifier (n.) Look up modifier at
1580s, agent noun of modify. Grammatical sense is from 1865.
modify (v.) Look up modify at
late 14c., from Old French modifier (14c.), from Latin modificare "to limit, measure off, restrain," from modus "measure, manner" (see mode (n.1)) + root of facere "to make" (see factitious). Related: Modified; modifying.
modish (adj.) Look up modish at
1650s, from mode (n.2) + -ish. "Very common in 17-18 c.; now somewhat arch[aic]." [OED].
modist (n.) Look up modist at
"follower of fashion," 1837, from mode (n.2) + -ist.
modular (adj.) Look up modular at
1798, as a term in mathematics, from French modulaire or directly from Modern Latin modularis, from Latin modulus "a small measure" (see module). Meaning "composed of interchangeable units" first recorded 1936.
modularity (n.) Look up modularity at
1909, from modular + -ity.
modulate (v.) Look up modulate at
1610s, in music, back-formation from modulation, or else from Latin modulatus, past participle of modulari. General sense from 1620s. In telecommunications from 1908. Related: Modulated; modulating.
modulation (n.) Look up modulation at
late 14c., "act of singing or making music," from Old French modulation "act of making music" (14c.), or directly from Latin modulationem (nominative modulatio) "rhythmical measure, singing and playing, melody," noun of action from past participle stem of modulari "regulate, measure off properly, measure rhythmically; play, play upon," from modulus (see module). Meaning "act of regulating according to measure or proportion" is from 1530s. Musical sense of "action of process of changing key" is first recorded 1690s.
modulator (n.) Look up modulator at
c. 1500, from Latin modulator, literally "one who modulates" in various senses (such as "musical director"), agent noun from past participle stem of modulari (see modulation). Meaning "device that produces modulation of a wave" is from 1919.