mal du siecle (n.) Look up mal du siecle at
French, mal du sìecle, "world-weariness."
mal- Look up mal- at
word-forming element meaning "bad, badly, ill, poorly, wrong, wrongly," from French mal (adv.), from Old French mal (adj., adv.) "evil, ill, wrong, wrongly" (9c.), from Latin male (adv.) "badly," or malus (adj.) "bad, evil" (fem. mala, neuter malum), from Proto-Italic *malo-, from PIE *mol-o-, source also of Old Irish mell "destruction," Greek meleos "idle; unhappy," Armenian mel "sin," Lithuanian melas "lie," Latvian malds "mistake," possbily also Greek blasphemein "to slander." The semantics fit, but the exact sense of the root remains uncertain, "since it concerns a collection of largely isolated words in different IE branches" [de Vaan]. Most Modern English words with this element are 19c. coinages.
malabsorption (n.) Look up malabsorption at
1879, from mal- + absorption.
Malachi Look up Malachi at
masc. proper name, Old Testament name of the last in order of the Twelve Prophets, from Hebrew Mal'akhi, literally "my messenger," from mal'akh "messenger," from Semitic base l-'-k (compare Arabic la'aka "he sent").
malachite (n.) Look up malachite at
common green ore of copper, late 14c., from French, ultimately from Greek malachitis (lithos) "mallow (stone)," from malakhe "mallow" (see mallow (n.)); the mineral traditionally so called from resemblance of its color to that of the leaves of the mallow plant.
malacia (n.) Look up malacia at
from Latin malacia "a calm at sea," from Greek malakia "softness, delicacy, effeminacy," from malakos "soft," from PIE root *mel- (1) "soft."
maladaptation (n.) Look up maladaptation at
1829, from mal- + adaptation.
maladaptive (adj.) Look up maladaptive at
1912, from mal- + adaptive.
maladjusted (adj.) Look up maladjusted at
1846, from mal- + adjusted (see adjust).
maladjustment (n.) Look up maladjustment at
1823, from mal- + adjustment.
maladministration (n.) Look up maladministration at
also mal-administration, 1640s, from mal- + administration.
maladroit (adj.) Look up maladroit at
1670s, from mal- + adroit. Related: Maladroitly; maladroitness.
malady (n.) Look up malady at
late 13c., from Old French maladie "sickness, illness, disease" (13c.), from malade "ill" (12c.), from Latin male habitus "doing poorly, feeling sick," literally "ill-conditioned," from male "badly" (see mal-) + habitus, past participle of habere "to have, hold" (from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive"). Related: Maladies.
Malaga (n.) Look up Malaga at
c. 1600, white wine exported from the Spanish port of Malaga, founded by the Phoenicians and probably from Phoenician malha "salt."
Malagasy Look up Malagasy at
"pertaining to Madagascar," large island off the coast of Africa, 1835, apparently a native alteration of Madagascar.
malaise (n.) Look up malaise at
c. 1300, maleise "pain, suffering; sorrow, anxiety," also, by late 14c., "disease, sickness," from Old French malaise "difficulty, suffering, hardship," literally "ill-ease," from mal "bad" (see mal-) + aise "ease" (see ease (n.)). The current use is perhaps a mid-18c. reborrowing from Modern French. A Middle English verbal form, malasen "to trouble, distress" (mid-15c.), from Old French malaisier, did not endure.
malamute (n.) Look up malamute at
also malemute, Eskimo dog, 1874, from name of Alaska Eskimo tribe in northwestern Alaska that developed the breed. The native form is malimiut.
malapert (adj.) Look up malapert at
"impudent," early 15c., from Old French mal apert, literally "ill-skilled," from mal- "badly" (see mal-) + apert "skillful," variant of espert "experienced, skillful, clever" (from Latin expertus; see expert). Related: Malapertly; malapertness.
malaprop (n.) Look up malaprop at
1823, from name of theatrical character Mrs. Malaprop (see malapropism). Related: Malapropian.
malapropism (n.) Look up malapropism at
1826, from Mrs. Malaprop, character in Sheridan's play "The Rivals" (1775), noted for her ridiculous misuse of large words (such as "contagious countries" for "contiguous countries"), her name coined from malapropos.
malapropos (adv.) Look up malapropos at
1660s, from French mal à propos "inopportunely, inappropriately," literally "badly for the purpose," from mal (see mal-) + proposer "propose" (see propose).
malaria (n.) Look up malaria at
1740, from Italian mal'aria, from mala aria, literally "bad air," from mala "bad" (fem. of malo, from Latin malus; see mal-) + aria "air" (see air (n.1)). Probably first used by Italian physician Francisco Torti (1658-1741). The disease, now known to be mosquito-borne, once was thought to be caused by foul air in marshy districts. Replaced native ague.
malarial (adj.) Look up malarial at
1830, from malaria + -al (1).
malarkey (n.) Look up malarkey at
also malarky, "lies and exaggerations," 1924, American English, of unknown origin. It also is a surname. Meaning much the same thing at about the same time in U.S. slang was ackamarackus (1934).
malassimilation (n.) Look up malassimilation at
also mal-assimilation, 1840, from mal- + assimilation.
malaxation (n.) Look up malaxation at
"softening," 1650s, from Late Latin malaxationem (nominative malaxatio), noun of action from past participle stem of malaxare "to soften, mollify," from Greek malassein "to make soft," related to malakos "soft," from PIE root *mel- (1) "soft."
Malay (n.) Look up Malay at
1590s, from native (Austronesian) name Malayu. As an adjective from 1779; earlier adjective form was Malayan (1660s).
Malayalam Look up Malayalam at
1837, Dravidian language of Malabar, from Dravidian Malayali, from mala "mountain" + al "possess."
Malaysia Look up Malaysia at
from Malay + Latinate ending -sia. Originally an early 19c. British geographers' name for the Indonesian archipelago. Related: Malaysian.
Malcolm Look up Malcolm at
masc. proper name, from Old Irish Máel Coluim "servant of (St.) Columba," from máel "servant," etymologically "bald, shorn, hornless," from PIE base *mai- (1) "to cut" (see maim).
malcontent Look up malcontent at
1580s, noun and adjective, from French malcontent; see mal- + content (adj.). Related: Malcontented; malcontentedly; malcontentedness.
maldistribution (n.) Look up maldistribution at
also mal-distribution, 1824, from mal- + distribution.
Maldives Look up Maldives at
probably from Sanskrit maladvipa "garland of islands," from mala "garland" + dvipa "island." Related: Maldivian.
male (n.) Look up male at
late 14c., "male human being; male fish or land animal," from Old French masle (adj.) "masculine, male, adult," also used as a noun (12c., Modern French mâle), from Latin masculus "masculine, male, worthy of a man" (source also of Provençal mascle, Spanish macho, Italian maschio), diminutive of mas (genitive maris) "male person or animal, male."
male (adj.) Look up male at
late 14c., from Old French male, masle "male, masculine; a male" (see male (n.)). Mechanical sense of "part of an instrument that penetrates another part" is from 1660s.
male chauvinism (n.) Look up male chauvinism at
1969; see chauvinism.
male chauvinist (adj.) Look up male chauvinist at
by 1936; popular from 1969 (with added pig (n.) by 1970), a specialized use of chauvinism, which in late 19c. international Communist Party jargon was extended to racism and in the next generation to sexism:
In this era, inspired by the CP's struggle against racism, women in the CP coined the term male chauvinism, in a parallel with white chauvinism, to derogate the conviction of men that they were better than women. [Jane Mansbridge and Katherine Flaster, "Male Chauvinist, Feminist, and Sexual Harassment, Different Trajectories in Feminist Linguistic Innovation," "American Speech," vol. lxxx, no. 3, Fall 2005]
malediction (n.) Look up malediction at
mid-15c., from Old French maledicion "a curse" (15c.), from Latin maledictionem (nominative maledictio) "the action of speaking evil of, slander," in Late Latin "a curse," noun of action from past participle stem of maledicere "to speak badly or evil of, slander," from male "badly" (see mal-) + dicere "to say" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
maledictory (adj.) Look up maledictory at
1822, from Latin maledictus (from maledicere; see malediction) + -ory.
maleducation (n.) Look up maleducation at
also mal-education, 1840, from mal- + education.
malefaction (n.) Look up malefaction at
early 15c., from Medieval Latin malefactionem (nominative malefactio), noun of action from past participle stem of malefacere "to do wrong, harm" (see malefactor).
malefactor (n.) Look up malefactor at
mid-15c., from Latin malefactor, agent noun from past participle stem of malefacere "to do evil," from male "badly" (see mal-) + facere "to do, make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
malefic (adj.) Look up malefic at
1650s, from Latin maleficus "wicked, vicious, criminal," from male "ill" (see mal-) + -ficus "making, doing," from combining form of facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
maleficence (n.) Look up maleficence at
1590s, from Middle French maleficence or directly from Latin maleficentia "evildoing, mischievousness, injury," from maleficus "wicked" (see malefic). Now largely displaced by malfeasance.
maleficent (adj.) Look up maleficent at
1670s, from Latin maleficent-, altered stem of maleficus (see malefic).
maleness (n.) Look up maleness at
1660s, from male (adj.) + -ness.
malevolence (n.) Look up malevolence at
mid-15c., from Middle French malevolence and directly from Latin malevolentia "ill-will, dislike, hatred," from malevolentem (nominative malevolens) "malevolent" (see malevolent).
malevolent (adj.) Look up malevolent at
c. 1500, from Middle French malivolent and directly from Latin malevolentem (nominative malevolens) "ill-disposed, spiteful, envious," from male "badly" (see mal-) + volentem (nominative volens), present participle of velle "to wish" (see will (v.)). Related: Malevolently.
malfeasance (n.) Look up malfeasance at
1690s, from French malfaisance "wrongdoing," from malfaisant, from mal- "badly" (see mal-) + faisant, present participle of faire "to do," from Latin facere "to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Malfeasor "wrong-doer" is attested from early 14c. Related: Malfeasant.
malformation (n.) Look up malformation at
also mal-formation, 1731, from mal- + formation.