obese (adj.) Look up obese at Dictionary.com
1650s, back-formation from obesity and in part from Latin obesus "fat, stout, plump," past participle of obedere "that has eaten itself fat" (see obesity). According to OED, "Rare before 19th c." Related: Obeseness. Latin obesus was translated in Old English as oferfæt "overfat."
obesity (n.) Look up obesity at Dictionary.com
1610s, from French obésité and directly from Latin obesitas "fatness, corpulence," from obesus "that has eaten itself fat," past participle of obdere "to eat all over, devour," from ob "over" (see ob-) + edere "eat" (see edible).
obey (v.) Look up obey at Dictionary.com
late 13c., from Old French obeir "obey, be obedient, do one's duty" (12c.), from Latin obedire, oboedire "obey, be subject, serve; pay attention to, give ear," literally "listen to," from ob "to" (see ob-) + audire "listen, hear" (see audience). Same sense development is in cognate Old English hiersumnian. Related: Obeyed; obeying.
obfuscate (v.) Look up obfuscate at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Latin obfuscatus, past participle of obfuscare "to darken," from ob "over" (see ob-) + fuscare "to make dark," from fuscus "dark" (see dusk). Related: Obfuscated; obfuscating.
obfuscation (n.) Look up obfuscation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., originally medical, "the darkening of a sore," from Latin obfuscationem (nominative obfuscatio), noun of action from past participle stem of obfuscare (see obfuscate).
Obie Look up Obie at Dictionary.com
one of the annual awards given to off-Broadway theater, 1967, from O.B. as the abbreviation of Off-Broadway.
obit (n.) Look up obit at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "death," from Middle French obit or directly from Latin obitus "death," noun use of past participle of obire "to die," literally "to go toward" (see obituary). In modern usage (since 1874) it is usually a clipped form of obituary, though it had the same meaning of "published death notice" 15c.-17c. The scholarly abbreviation ob. with date is from Latin obiit "(he) died," third person singular of obire.
obiter (adv.) Look up obiter at Dictionary.com
Latin, literally "by the way," from ob "to, toward" (see ob-) + iter "journey" (see ion). Klein's sources, however, say it is ob- with the suffix -iter in analogy of circiter "about" from circa. Also see obituary.
obiter dictum Look up obiter dictum at Dictionary.com
"statement in passing," a judge's expression of opinion not regarded as binding or decisive, Latin, literally "something said incidentally;" see obiter + dictum.
obituary (n.) Look up obituary at Dictionary.com
1706, "register of deaths," from Medieval Latin obituarius "a record of the death of a person," literally "pertaining to death," from Latin obitus "departure, a going to meet, encounter" (a euphemism for "death"), from stem of obire "go toward, go to meet" (as in mortem obire "meet death"), from ob "to, toward" (see ob-) + ire "to go" (see ion). Meaning "record or announcement of a death, especially in a newspaper, and including a brief biographical sketch" is from 1738. As an adjective from 1828. A similar euphemism is in Old English cognate forðfaran "to die," literally "to go forth;" utsið "death," literally "going out, departure."
object (n.) Look up object at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "tangible thing, something perceived or presented to the senses," from Medieval Latin objectum "thing put before" (the mind or sight), noun use of neuter of Latin obiectus "lying before, opposite" (as a noun in classical Latin, "charges, accusations"), past participle of obicere "to present, oppose, cast in the way of," from ob "against" (see ob-) + iacere "to throw" (see jet (v.)). Sense of "thing aimed at" is late 14c. No object "not a thing regarded as important" is from 1782. As an adjective, "presented to the senses," from late 14c. Object lesson "instruction conveyed by examination of a material object" is from 1831.
object (v.) Look up object at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "to bring forward in opposition," from Old French objecter and directly from Latin obiectus, past participle of obiectare "to cite as grounds for disapproval, set against, oppose," literally "to put or throw before or against," frequentative of obicere (see object (n.)). Related: Objected; objecting.
objectification (n.) Look up objectification at Dictionary.com
1860, noun of action from objectify.
objectify (v.) Look up objectify at Dictionary.com
1838, from Medieval Latin objectum (see object (n.)) + -fy. Related: Objectified; objectifying.
objection (n.) Look up objection at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French objeccion "reply, retort" (12c.) and directly from Late Latin obiectionem (nominative obiectio), "a throwing or putting before," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin obicere "to oppose" (see object (n.)).
objectionable (adj.) Look up objectionable at Dictionary.com
1781, from objection + -able. Related: Objectionably.
objective (adj.) Look up objective at Dictionary.com
1610s, originally in the philosophical sense of "considered in relation to its object" (opposite of subjective), formed on pattern of Medieval Latin objectivus, from objectum "object" (see object (n.)) + -ive. Meaning "impersonal, unbiased" is first found 1855, influenced by German objektiv. Related: Objectively.
objective (n.) Look up objective at Dictionary.com
1738, "something objective to the mind," from objective (adj.). Meaning "goal, aim" (1881) is from military term objective point (1852), reflecting a sense evolution in French.
objectivism (n.) Look up objectivism at Dictionary.com
1854 in philosophical sense, "the doctrine that knowledge is based on objective reality," from objective (adj.) + -ism.
objectivity (n.) Look up objectivity at Dictionary.com
1803, from Medieval Latin objectivus, from Latin objectus (see object (n.)) + -ity.
objet (n.) Look up objet at Dictionary.com
"an object on display, an ornament," 1857, from French objet (14c.), especially in objet d'art (1865), from Latin objectus (see object (n.)).
objurgate (v.) Look up objurgate at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Latin obiurgatus, past participle of obiurgare "to chide, rebuke," from ob- (see ob-) + iurgare "to quarrel, scold," from phrase iure agere "to deal in a lawsuit," from ablative of ius "right; law; suit" (see just (adj.)) + agere "to do, act, set in motion" (see act (n.)). Related: Objurgatory.
objurgation (n.) Look up objurgation at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Latin obiurgationem (nominative obiurgatio) "a chiding, reproving, reproof," noun of action from past participle stem of obiurgare (see objurgate).
oblate (adj.) Look up oblate at Dictionary.com
"flattened on the ends," 1705, from Medieval Latin oblatus "flattened," from Latin ob "toward" (see ob-) + latus, abstracted from its opposite, prolatus "lengthened" (see oblate (n.)).
oblate (n.) Look up oblate at Dictionary.com
"person devoted to religious work," 1756, from Medieval Latin oblatus, noun use of Latin oblatus, variant past participle of offerre "to offer, to bring before," from ob- (see ob-) + latus "carried, borne" (used as suppletive past participle of ferre "to bear"), from *tlatos, from PIE root *tele- "to bear, carry" (see extol).
oblation (n.) Look up oblation at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Old French oblacion "offering, pious donation" and directly from Latin oblationem (nominative oblatio) "an offering, presenting, gift," in Late Latin "sacrifice," from Latin oblatus (see oblate (n.)).
obligate (v.) Look up obligate at Dictionary.com
1540s, "to bind, connect;" 1660s, "to put under moral obligation," back-formation from obligation, or else from Latin obligatus, past participle of obligare (see oblige). Oblige, with which it has been confused since late 17c., means "to do one a favor." Related: Obligated; obligating.
obligation (n.) Look up obligation at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from Old French obligacion "obligation, duty, responsibility" (early 13c.) and directly from Latin obligationem (nominative obligatio) "an engaging or pledging," literally "a binding" (but rarely used in this sense), noun of action from past participle stem of obligare (see oblige). The notion is of binding with promises or by law or duty.
obligatory (adj.) Look up obligatory at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Old French obligatoire "creating an obligation, obligatory," and directly from Late Latin obligatorius "binding," from obligat-, past participle stem of obligare (see oblige).
oblige (v.) Look up oblige at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "to bind by oath," from Old French obligier "engage one's faith, commit (oneself), pledge" (13c.), from Latin obligare "to bind, bind up, bandage," figuratively "put under obligation," from ob "to" (see ob-) + ligare "to bind," from PIE root *leig- "to bind" (see ligament). Main modern meaning "to make (someone) indebted by conferring a benefit or kindness" is from 1560s. Related: obliged; obliging.
obliged (adj.) Look up obliged at Dictionary.com
c.1600, past participle adjective from oblige. To be obliged "be bound by ties of gratitude" is from 1540s.
obligee (n.) Look up obligee at Dictionary.com
"person to whom another is bound by contract," 1570s, from oblige + -ee.
obliging (adj.) Look up obliging at Dictionary.com
"willing to do service or favors," 1630s, present participle adjective from oblige. Related: Obligingly.
obligor (n.) Look up obligor at Dictionary.com
"person who binds himself to another by contract," 1540s, agent noun in Latin form from oblige.
oblique (adj.) Look up oblique at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French oblique (14c.) and directly from Latin obliquus "slanting, sidelong, indirect," from ob "against" (see ob-) + root of licinus "bent upward," from PIE root *lei- "to bend, be movable" (see limb (n.1)). As a type of muscles, in reference to the axis of the body, 1610s (adj.), 1800 (n.). Related: Obliquely; obliqueness.
obliquity (n.) Look up obliquity at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French obliquité (14c.), from Latin obliquitatem (nominative obliquitas) "slanting direction, obliquity," noun of quality from obliquus (see oblique).
obliterate (v.) Look up obliterate at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Latin obliteratus, past participle of obliterare "cause to disappear, blot out, erase, efface," figuratively "cause to be forgotten," from ob "against" (see ob-) + littera (also litera) "letter, script" (see letter (n.)); abstracted from phrase literas scribere "write across letters, strike out letters." Related: Obliterated; obliterating.
obliteration (n.) Look up obliteration at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Late Latin obliterationem (nominative obliteratio), noun of action from past participle stem of obliterare (see obliterate).
obliviate (v.) Look up obliviate at Dictionary.com
1660s, from Latin oblivium (see oblivion). Related: Obliviated; obliviating.
oblivion (n.) Look up oblivion at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "state or fact of forgetting," from Old French oblivion (13c.) and directly from Latin oblivionem (nominative oblivio) "forgetfulness; a being forgotten," from oblivisci (past participle oblitus) "forget," originally "even out, smooth over, efface," from ob "over" (see ob-) + root of levis "smooth," from PIE *lei-w-, from root *(s)lei- "slime, slimy, sticky" (see slime (n.)). Meaning "state of being forgotten" is early 15c.
oblivious (adj.) Look up oblivious at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Latin obliviosus "forgetful, that easily forgets; producing forgetfulness," from oblivion (see oblivion). Meaning "unaware, unconscious (of something)" is from 1862, formerly regarded as erroneous, this is now the general meaning and the word has lost its original sense of "no longer aware or mindful." Properly should be used with to, not of. Related: Obliviously; obliviousness.
oblong (adj.) Look up oblong at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin oblongus "more long than broad," originally "somewhat long," from ob "to, toward," here perhaps intensive (see ob-) + longus "long" (see long (adj.)). As a noun from c.1600.
obloquy (n.) Look up obloquy at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "evil speaking," from Late Latin obloquium "speaking against, contradiction," from Latin obloqui "to speak against, contradict," from ob "against" (see ob-) + loqui "to speak," from PIE *tolk(w)- "to speak" (see locution). Related: Obloquious.
obnoxious (adj.) Look up obnoxious at Dictionary.com
1580s, "subject to the authority of another," from Latin obnoxiosus "hurtful, injurious," from obnoxius "subject, exposed to harm," from ob "to, toward" (see ob-) + noxa "injury, hurt, damage entailing liability" (see noxious). Meaning "subject to something harmful" is 1590s; meaning "offensive, hateful" is first recorded 1670s, influenced by noxious.
Obnoxious has two very different senses, one of which (exposed or open or liable to attack or injury) requires notice because its currency is now so restricted that it is puzzling to the uninstructed. It is the word's rightful or de jure meaning, and we may hope that scholarly writers will keep it alive. [Fowler]
Related: Obnoxiously; obnoxiousness.
obnubilate (v.) Look up obnubilate at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Latin obnibulatus, past participle of obnubilare "to cover with clouds or fog," from ob- (see ob-) + verb from Latin nubes "cloud" (see nuance). Related: Obnubilated; obnubilating; obnubilation.
obo Look up obo at Dictionary.com
also o.b.o., abbreviation of or best offer, by 1969.
oboe (n.) Look up oboe at Dictionary.com
1724, from Italian oboe, from phonetic spelling of Middle French hautbois (itself borrowed in English 16c. as hautboy), from haut "high, loud, high-pitched" (see haught) + bois "wood" (see bush (n.)). So called because it had the highest register among woodwind instruments. Related: Oboist.
obol (n.) Look up obol at Dictionary.com
ancient Greek small coin and weight, 1660s, from Latin obolus, from Greek obolos, identical with obelos "a spit, needle." From the original shape.
obscene (adj.) Look up obscene at Dictionary.com
1590s, "offensive to the senses, or to taste and refinement," from Middle French obscène (16c.), from Latin obscenus "offensive," especially to modesty, originally "boding ill, inauspicious," of unknown origin; perhaps from ob "onto" (see ob-) + caenum "filth." Meaning "offensive to modesty or decency" is attested from 1590s. Legally, in U.S., it hinged on "whether to the average person, applying contemporary community standards, the dominant theme of the material taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest." [Justice William Brennan, "Roth v. United States," June 24, 1957]; refined in 1973 by "Miller v. California":
The basic guidelines for the trier of fact must be: (a) whether 'the average person, applying contemporary community standards' would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest, (b) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law; and (c) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Related: Obscenely.
obscenity (n.) Look up obscenity at Dictionary.com
1580s, "obscene quality," from French obscénité, from Latin obscenitatem (nominative obscenitas) "inauspiciousness, filthiness," from obscenus "offensive" (see obscene). Meaning "a foul or loathsome act" is 1610s. Sense of "an obscene utterance or word" is attested by 1690. Related: Obscenities.