ophiomancy (n.) Look up ophiomancy at Dictionary.com
ancient art of divination by the movements of snakes, 1680s, from ophio- + -mancy. Related: Ophiomantic; ophiomancer.
Ophir Look up Ophir at Dictionary.com
name of a place mentioned in Old Testament as a source for fine gold; location still unknown. Hence Ophir-gold (1610s).
Ophiuchus Look up Ophiuchus at Dictionary.com
constellation (representing Aesculapius), 1650s, from Latin, from Greek ophioukhos, literally "holding a serpent," from ophis "serpent" (see ophio-) + stem of ekhein "to hold, have, keep" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold"). The constellation is equatorial, and Milton's "Ophiuchus huge in th' Arctick Sky" ("Paradise Lost") is a rare lapse for a poet who generally knew his astronomy.
ophthalmia (n.) Look up ophthalmia at Dictionary.com
"inflammation of the eye, conjunctivitis," late 14c., from Medieval Latin obtalmia, Old French obtalmie, from Late Latin ophthalmia, or directly from Greek ophthalmia, from ophthalmos (see ophthalmo-) + -ia.
ophthalmic (adj.) Look up ophthalmic at Dictionary.com
"pertaining to the eye," early 18c., from Latin ophthalmicus, from Greek ophthalmikos "pertaining to the eye," from ophthalmos "eye" (see ophthalmo-).
ophthalmo- Look up ophthalmo- at Dictionary.com
before vowels ophthalm-, word-forming element meaning "eye," mostly in plural, "the eyes," from Greek ophthalmo-, comb. form of ophthalmos "eye," originally "the seeing," of uncertain origin. Perhaps from ops "eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see") + a form related to thalamos "inner room, chamber" (see thalamus), giving the whole a sense of "eye and eye socket."
ophthalmologist (n.) Look up ophthalmologist at Dictionary.com
1834; see ophthalmology + -ist.
ophthalmology (n.) Look up ophthalmology at Dictionary.com
1842; see ophthalmo- + -logy. Related: Ophthalmological.
ophthalmoscope (n.) Look up ophthalmoscope at Dictionary.com
1857 in English; coined 1852 by German physician and physicist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821–1894) from ophthalmo- + -scope.
opiate (n.) Look up opiate at Dictionary.com
"medicine containing opium," early 15c., from Medieval Latin opiatus, from Latin opium (see opium). Figurative sense of "anything that dulls the feelings" is from 1640s. From 1540s in English as an adjective, "made with or containing opium."
opine (v.) Look up opine at Dictionary.com
"express an opinion," mid-15c., from Middle French opiner (15c.) and directly from Latin opinari "have an opinion, be of opinion, suppose, conjecture, think, judge," perhaps related to optare "to desire, choose" (see option). Related: Opined; opining.
opiniated (adj.) Look up opiniated at Dictionary.com
"obstinately attached to one's opinion," 1590s, past participle adjective from opiniate (from Latin opinio), a verb where now we use opine. Also see opinion.
opinion (n.) Look up opinion at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, from Old French opinion "opinion, view, judgements founded upon probabilities" (12c.), from Latin opinionem (nominative opinio) "opinion, conjecture, fancy, belief, what one thinks; appreciation, esteem," from stem of opinari "think, judge, suppose, opine," from PIE *op- (2) "to choose" (see option).
Where there is much desire to learn, there of necessity will be much arguing, much writing, many opinions; for opinion in good men is but knowledge in the making. [Milton, "Areopagitica"]
opinionate (v.) Look up opinionate at Dictionary.com
"to hold an opinion," c. 1600, from opinion + -ate (2); now surviving mostly in past participle adjective opinionated.
opinionated (adj.) Look up opinionated at Dictionary.com
"obstinate," c. 1600, past participle adjective from opinionate.
opioid (n.) Look up opioid at Dictionary.com
1957, from opium + -oid.
opium (n.) Look up opium at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Latin opium, from Greek opion "poppy juice, poppy," diminutive of opos "vegetable juice."
Die Religion ist der Seufzer der bedrängten Kreatur, das Gemüth einer herzlosen Welt, wie sie der Geist geistloser Zustände ist. Sie ist das Opium des Volks. [Karl Marx, "Zur Kritik der Hegel'schen Rechts-Philosophie," in "Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher," February, 1844]
The British Opium War against China lasted from 1839-42; the name is attested from 1841.
opossum (n.) Look up opossum at Dictionary.com
1610, from Powhatan (Algonquian) opassum, "equivalent to a proto-Algonquian term meaning 'white dog'" [Bright].
opponent (n.) Look up opponent at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Latin opponentem (nominative opponens), present participle of opponere "oppose, object to," literally "set against, set opposite," from assimilated form of ob "in front of, in the way of" (see ob-) + ponere "to put, set, place" (see position (n.)).
opportune (adj.) Look up opportune at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, from Old French opportun and directly from Latin opportunus "fit, convenient, suitable, favorable," from the phrase ob portum veniens "coming toward a port," in reference to the wind, from ob "in front of; toward" (see ob-) + portus "harbor" (see port (n.1)). Related: Opportunely.
opportunism (n.) Look up opportunism at Dictionary.com
"policy of adopting actions to circumstances while holding goals unchanged," 1870, from opportune + -ism. Compare opportunist.
opportunist (n.) Look up opportunist at Dictionary.com
1881, from opportunism (q.v.) + -ist. A word in Italian politics, later applied in French by Rochefort to Gambetta (1876) and then generally in English to any who seek to profit from the prevailing circumstances.
opportunistic (adj.) Look up opportunistic at Dictionary.com
1889, see opportunist + -ic. Related: Opportunistically.
opportunity (n.) Look up opportunity at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French opportunite (13c.) and directly from Latin opportunitatem (nominative opportunitas) "fitness, convenience, suitableness, favorable time," from opportunus "fit, convenient, suitable, favorable," from the phrase ob portum veniens "coming toward a port," in reference to the wind, from ob "in front of; toward" (see ob-) + portus "harbor" (see port (n.1)). Opportunity cost attested from 1911. Expression opportunity knocks but once (at any man's door) attested from 1898.
opposable (adj.) Look up opposable at Dictionary.com
1660s, "capable of being withstood," from oppose + -able. In reference to human thumbs, from 1833. Related: Opposability.
oppose (v.) Look up oppose at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French oposer "oppose, resist, rival; contradict, state opposing point of view" (12c.), from poser "to place, lay down" (see pose (v.1)), blended with Latin opponere "oppose, object to, set against" (see opponent). Related: Opposed; opposing.
opposite (adj.) Look up opposite at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "placed on the other side of (something)," from Old French oposite "opposite, contrary" (13c.), from Latin oppositus "standing against, opposed, opposite," past participle of opponere "set against" (see opponent). Meaning "contrary in nature or character" is from 1570s. As a noun from late 14c. As a preposition from 1758. As an adverb from 1817. Related: Oppositely.
opposition (n.) Look up opposition at Dictionary.com
late 14c., an astrological term for the situation of two heavenly bodies exactly across from one another in the heavens, from Old French oposicion (12c.) or directly from Latin oppositionem (nominative oppositio) "act of opposing, a placing against," noun of action from past participle stem of opponere "set against" (see opponent). Meaning "that which is opposite something else" is from 1540s; meaning "contrast, antagonism" first attested 1580s; sense of "political party opposed to the one in power" is from 1704. Related: Oppositional.
oppress (v.) Look up oppress at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from Old French opresser "oppress, afflict; torment, smother" (13c.), from Medieval Latin oppressare, frequentative of Latin opprimere "press against, press together, press down;" figuratively "crush, put down, subdue, prosecute relentlessly" (in Late Latin "to rape"), from assimilated form of ob "against" (see ob-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike").
It is the due [external] restraint and not the moderation of rulers that constitutes a state of liberty; as the power to oppress, though never exercised, does a state of slavery. [St. George Tucker, "View of the Constitution of the United States," 1803]
Related: Oppressed; oppressing.
oppressed (adj.) Look up oppressed at Dictionary.com
late 14c., past participle adjective from oppress.
oppression (n.) Look up oppression at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "cruel or unjust use of power or authority," from Old French opression (12c.), from Latin oppressionem (nominative oppressio) "a pressing down; violence, oppression," noun of action from past participle stem of opprimere (see oppress). Meaning "action of weighing on someone's mind or spirits" is from late 14c.
oppressive (adj.) Look up oppressive at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Medieval Latin oppressivus, from oppress-, past participle stem of opprimere (see oppress). Related: Oppressively; oppressiveness.
oppressor (n.) Look up oppressor at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, from Old French opresseor, from Latin oppressor, from opprimere (see oppress (v.)).
opprobrious (adj.) Look up opprobrious at Dictionary.com
"full of reproach, intended to bring disgrace," late 14c., from Old French oprobrieus (Modern French opprobrieux), or directly from Late Latin opprobriosus, from Latin opprobare "to reproach, taunt," from assimilated form of ob "in front of, before" (see ob-) + probrum "reproach, infamy," from Proto-Italic *profro-, from PIE *probhro- "what is brought up" (against someone, as a reproach), from root *bher- (1) "to carry," also "to bear children." Etymological sense is "disgrace attached to conduct considered shameful." Related: Opprobriously; opprobriousness.
opprobrium (n.) Look up opprobrium at Dictionary.com
1680s, from Latin opprobrium "disgrace, infamy, scandal, dishonor," from opprobare (see opprobrious).
oppugn (v.) Look up oppugn at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Latin oppugnare "to fight against, attack, assail," from ob "toward, against" (see ob-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Related: Oppugned; oppugning.
opry (n.) Look up opry at Dictionary.com
1914, U.S. dialectal pronunciation of opera. Especially in Grand Ole Opry, a radio broadcast of country music from Nashville, registered as a proprietary name 1950.
opsimathy (n.) Look up opsimathy at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Greek opsimathia "learning late in life," from opse "late" (related to opiso "backward," opisthen "behind") + manthanein "to learn" (from PIE root *mendh- "to learn"). Related: Opsimath (n.).
opt (v.) Look up opt at Dictionary.com
1877, from French opter "to choose" (16c.), from Latin optare "choose, desire" (see option). To opt out is attested from 1922. Related: Opted; opting.
optative Look up optative at Dictionary.com
in reference to grammatical mood expressing wish or desire, 1520s, from Middle French optatif (15c.), from Late Latin optativus, from Latin optatus "wished, desired, longed for," past participle of optare "to choose, wish, desire" (see option).
optic (adj.) Look up optic at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Middle French optique, obtique (c. 1300) and directly from Medieval Latin opticus "of sight or seeing," from Greek optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," related to ops "eye," from PIE root *okw- "to see."
optical (adj.) Look up optical at Dictionary.com
1560s, from optic + -al (1). Of abstract art, from 1964. Related: Optically.
optician (n.) Look up optician at Dictionary.com
1680s, after French opticien "maker or seller of optical instruments;" see optic + -ian.
optics (n.) Look up optics at Dictionary.com
"science of sight and light," 1570s, from optic; also see -ics. Used for Medieval Latin optica (neuter plural), from Greek ta optika "optical matters," neuter plural of optikos "optic."
optimal (adj.) Look up optimal at Dictionary.com
"most favorable," 1890, from Latin optimus (see optimum). Originally a word in biology. Related: Optimally.
optimism (n.) Look up optimism at Dictionary.com
1759 (in translations of Voltaire), from French optimisme (1737), from Modern Latin optimum, used by Gottfried Leibniz (in "Théodicée," 1710) to mean "the greatest good," from Latin optimus "the best" (see optimum). The doctrine holds that the actual world is the "best of all possible worlds," in which the creator accomplishes the most good at the cost of the least evil.
En termes de l'art, il l'appelle la raison du meilleur ou plus savamment encore, et Theologiquement autant que Géométriquement, le systême de l'Optimum, ou l'Optimisme. [Mémoires de Trévoux, Feb. 1737]
Launched out of philosophical jargon and into currency by Voltaire's satire on it in "Candide." General sense of "belief that good ultimately will prevail in the world" first attested 1841 in Emerson; meaning "tendency to take a hopeful view of things" first recorded 1819 in Shelley.
optimist (n.) Look up optimist at Dictionary.com
1759, from French optimiste (1752); see optimism + -ist.
optimistic (adj.) Look up optimistic at Dictionary.com
1845, from optimist + -ic. Related: Optimistical (1809); optimistically.
optimization (n.) Look up optimization at Dictionary.com
1857, noun of action from optimize.
optimize (v.) Look up optimize at Dictionary.com
1844, "to act as an optimist," back-formation from optimist. Meaning "to make the most of" is first recorded 1857. Related: Optimized; optimizing.