overflow (v.) Look up overflow at Dictionary.com
Old English oferfleow "to flow across, flood, inundate," also "to flow over (a brim or bank);" see over- + flow (v.). Related: Overflowed; overflowing.
overflow (n.) Look up overflow at Dictionary.com
1580s, "act of overflowing," from overflow (v.).
overgrazed (adj.) Look up overgrazed at Dictionary.com
of grassland, 1929, from over- + past participle of graze (v.).
overground (adj.) Look up overground at Dictionary.com
"situated above ground" (as opposed to underground), 1879, from over- + ground (n.).
overgrown (adj.) Look up overgrown at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "covered with growth," past participle adjective from overgrow "overspread with foliage" (Old English ofergrowan); see over- + grown, and compare Old English verb ofergrowan "to overgrow." Meaning "having grown too large" is attested from late 15c.
overgrowth (n.) Look up overgrowth at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from over- + growth. Also see overgrown.
overhand (adv.) Look up overhand at Dictionary.com
1570s, "upside down," from over- + hand. Sense in tennis, etc., in reference to hand position above that which is gripped, is first recorded 1861. As an adjective, of throws, strokes, or bowls, "done with the hand raised above the shoulder," it is first recorded 1828 (in cricket).
overhang (v.) Look up overhang at Dictionary.com
1590s, from over- + hang (v.). Related: Overhung; overhanging.
overhang (n.) Look up overhang at Dictionary.com
"fact of overhanging," 1864, from overhang (v.).
overhaul (v.) Look up overhaul at Dictionary.com
1620s, from over- + haul (v.); originally nautical, "pull rigging apart for examination," which was done by slackening the rope by hauling in the opposite direction to that in which it is pulled in hoisting. Replaced overhale in sense of "overtake" (1793). Related: Overhauled; overhauling.
overhaul (n.) Look up overhaul at Dictionary.com
1826, from overhaul (v.).
overhead Look up overhead at Dictionary.com
1530s, "above one's head" (adv.), from over- + head. The adjective is attested from 1874. As a noun, short for overhead costs, etc., it is attested from 1914.
overhear (v.) Look up overhear at Dictionary.com
"to hear what one is not meant to hear," 1540s, from over- + hear. The notion is perhaps "to hear beyond the intended range of the voice." Old English oferhieran also meant "to not listen, to disregard, disobey" (compare overlook for negative force of over; also Middle High German überhaeren, Middle Dutch overhoren in same sense). Related: Overheard; overhearing.
overheat (v.) Look up overheat at Dictionary.com
"to make too hot" (transitive), late 14c., from over- + heat (v.). Intransitive sense "to become too hot" is from 1902, originally in reference to motor engines. Related: Overheated; overheating.
overindulge (v.) Look up overindulge at Dictionary.com
also over-indulge, 1821, from over (adv.) + indulge.
overjoy (v.) Look up overjoy at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to rejoice over," from over- + joy (q.v.); translating Latin supergaudere (in Psalms xxxiv, etc.). Transitive sense of "to fill with gladness" is first recorded 1570s (now usually in past participle overjoyed).
overkill (n.) Look up overkill at Dictionary.com
1958, from over- + kill (v.). Originally in reference to nuclear arsenals; the general sense is from 1965. The verb is attested from 1946.
overlap (v.) Look up overlap at Dictionary.com
"to partially extend over," 1726, over- + lap (v.). Related: Overlapped; overlapping.
overlap (n.) Look up overlap at Dictionary.com
1813, from overlap (v.).
overlay (v.) Look up overlay at Dictionary.com
"to cover the surface of (something)," c. 1300, in part from Old English oferlecgan "to place over," also "to overburden," and in part from over- + lay (v.). There also was an overlie in Middle English, but it merged into this word. Similar compounds are found in other Germanic languages, such as Gothic ufarlagjan. Related: Overlaid; overlaying.
overlay (n.) Look up overlay at Dictionary.com
in the printing sense, 1824, from overlay (v.). Meaning "transparent sheet over a map, chart, etc." is from 1938. In earliest noun use it meant "a necktie" (1725).
overlie (v.) Look up overlie at Dictionary.com
late 12c., from over- + lie (v.2), or from an unrecorded Old English *oferlicgan. "In use from 12th to 16th c.; in 17-18th displaced by overlay; reintroduced in 19th c., chiefly in geological use." [OED]. Related: Overlay; overlain.
overload (v.) Look up overload at Dictionary.com
1550s, "to place too great a burden on," from over- + load (v.). Intransitive sense from 1961. Related: Overloaded; overloading. The noun is attested from 1640s; of electrical current, from 1904. Middle English had overlade (v.) in this sense.
overlong (adj.) Look up overlong at Dictionary.com
"excessively long," early 14c., from over- + long (adj.). Middle English also had overshort "too short, too brief."
overlook (v.) Look up overlook at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to examine, scrutinize, inspect," from over- + look (v.). Another Middle English sense was "to peer over the top of." These two literal senses have given rise to the two main modern meanings. Meaning "to look over or beyond and thus not see," via notion of "to choose to not notice" is first recorded 1520s. Seemingly contradictory sense of "to watch over officially, keep an eye on, superintend" is from 1530s. Related: Overlooked; overlooking. In Shekaspeare's day, overlooking also was a common term for "inflicting the evil eye on" (someone or something).
overlord (n.) Look up overlord at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, from over- + lord (n.). Chosen 1943 as the Allied code-word for the D-Day invasion of northern France.
overly (adv.) Look up overly at Dictionary.com
"excessively," Old English oferlice; see over + -ly (2). Often "regarded as an Americanism in the U.K." [OED].
overmaster (v.) Look up overmaster at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from over- + master (v.). Related: Overmastered; overmastering.
overmatch (v.) Look up overmatch at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "be more than a match for," from over- + match (v.). Related: Overmatched; overmatching.
overmuch (adj.) Look up overmuch at Dictionary.com
"too great in amount," c. 1300, over- + much (q.v.). As an adverb from late 14c. Old English had cognate ofermicel.
overnight (adv.) Look up overnight at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from over- + night (n.). Originally "on the preceding evening;" sense of "during the night" is attested from 1530s. Meaning "in the course of a single night, hence seemingly instantaneously" is attested from 1939.
overpark (v.) Look up overpark at Dictionary.com
1938, American English, from over- + park (v.). Related: Overparked; overparking.
overpass (n.) Look up overpass at Dictionary.com
"stretch of road that passes over another," 1929, American English, from over- + pass (v.). + Overpass has been a verb since late 13c.
overpay (v.) Look up overpay at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from over- + pay (v.). Related: Overpaid; overpaying.
overplay (v.) Look up overplay at Dictionary.com
"to emphasize (something) too much," 1933, a metaphor from card games, in to overplay (one's) hand, "to spoil one's hand by bidding in excess of its value" (1926), from over- + play (v.). The word was used earlier in a theatrical sense. Related: Overplayed; overplaying.
overpower (v.) Look up overpower at Dictionary.com
"to overcome with superior power," 1590s, from over- + power (v.). Related: Overpowered; overpowering.
overprice (v.) Look up overprice at Dictionary.com
"to price (something) excessively high," c. 1600, from over- + price (v.). Related: Overpriced; overpricing.
overproduction (n.) Look up overproduction at Dictionary.com
1822, from over- + production.
overprotection (n.) Look up overprotection at Dictionary.com
1929, originally in reference to children, from over- + protection.
overprotective (adj.) Look up overprotective at Dictionary.com
also over-protective, 1930, from over- + protective. Related: Overprotectively; overprotectiveness.
overrate (v.) Look up overrate at Dictionary.com
1610s, from over- + rate (v.). Related: Overrated; overrating.
overreach (v.) Look up overreach at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to reach above or beyond" (transitive), from over- + reach (v.). Meaning "to extend over something, to cover it" is from c. 1400. Sense of "to reach beyond one's strength" is from 1560s. As a noun from 1550s. Related: Overreached; overreaching.
override (v.) Look up override at Dictionary.com
Old English oferridan "to ride across," from ofer "over" (see over) + ridan "to ride" (see ride (v.)). Originally literal, of cavalry, etc. Figurative meaning "to set aside arrogantly" is from 1827. The mechanical sense "to suspend automatic operation" is attested from 1946. As a noun in this sense from 1946. Related: Overrode; overriding; overridden.
overrule (v.) Look up overrule at Dictionary.com
"rule against; set aside, as by a higher authority," 1590s, from over- + rule (v.). It was used earlier in a sense "to govern, control" (1570s). Related: Overruled; overruling.
overrun (v.) Look up overrun at Dictionary.com
Old English oferyrnan; see over- + run (v.). The noun meaning "excess expenditure over budget" is from 1956. Related: Overran; overrunning.
overseas (adj.) Look up overseas at Dictionary.com
1580s, from over + sea. Popularized during World War I as a British euphemism for "colonial."
oversee (v.) Look up oversee at Dictionary.com
Old English oferseon "to look down upon, keep watch over, survey, observe;" see over + see (v.). Meaning "to supervise" is attested from mid-15c. The verb lacks the double sense of similar overlook, but this emerges in the noun form oversight. Related: Oversaw; overseen.
overseer (n.) Look up overseer at Dictionary.com
late 14c., agent noun from oversee (v.).
overshadow (v.) Look up overshadow at Dictionary.com
Old English ofersceadwian "to cast a shadow over, obscure;" see over + shadow (v.). It was used to render Latin obumbrare in New Testament, as were Middle High German überschatewen, Middle Dutch overschaduwen, Gothic ufarskadwjan. Figurative sense is from 1580s. Related: Overshadowed; overshadowing.
overshoe (n.) Look up overshoe at Dictionary.com
1829, from over- + shoe (n.). Related: Overshoes.