overlay (v.) Look up overlay at Dictionary.com
"to cover the surface of (something)," c. 1300, in part from Old English oferlecgan "to place over," also "to overburden," and in part from over- + lay (v.). There also was an overlie in Middle English, but it merged into this word. Similar compounds are found in other Germanic languages, such as Gothic ufarlagjan. Related: Overlaid; overlaying.
overlay (n.) Look up overlay at Dictionary.com
in the printing sense, 1824, from overlay (v.). Meaning "transparent sheet over a map, chart, etc." is from 1938. In earliest noun use it meant "a necktie" (1725).
overlie (v.) Look up overlie at Dictionary.com
late 12c., from over- + lie (v.2), or from an unrecorded Old English *oferlicgan. "In use from 12th to 16th c.; in 17-18th displaced by overlay; reintroduced in 19th c., chiefly in geological use." [OED]. Related: Overlay; overlain.
overload (v.) Look up overload at Dictionary.com
1550s, "to place too great a burden on," from over- + load (v.). Intransitive sense from 1961. Related: Overloaded; overloading. The noun is attested from 1640s; of electrical current, from 1904. Middle English had overlade (v.) in this sense.
overlong (adj.) Look up overlong at Dictionary.com
"excessively long," early 14c., from over- + long (adj.). Middle English also had overshort "too short, too brief."
overlook (v.) Look up overlook at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to examine, scrutinize, inspect," from over- + look (v.). Another Middle English sense was "to peer over the top of." These two literal senses have given rise to the two main modern meanings. Meaning "to look over or beyond and thus not see," via notion of "to choose to not notice" is first recorded 1520s. Seemingly contradictory sense of "to watch over officially, keep an eye on, superintend" is from 1530s. Related: Overlooked; overlooking. In Shekaspeare's day, overlooking also was a common term for "inflicting the evil eye on" (someone or something).
overlord (n.) Look up overlord at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, from over- + lord (n.). Chosen 1943 as the Allied code-word for the D-Day invasion of northern France.
overly (adv.) Look up overly at Dictionary.com
"excessively," Old English oferlice; see over + -ly (2). Often "regarded as an Americanism in the U.K." [OED].
overmaster (v.) Look up overmaster at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., from over- + master (v.). Related: Overmastered; overmastering.
overmatch (v.) Look up overmatch at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "be more than a match for," from over- + match (v.). Related: Overmatched; overmatching.
overmuch (adj.) Look up overmuch at Dictionary.com
"too great in amount," c. 1300, over- + much (q.v.). As an adverb from late 14c. Old English had cognate ofermicel.
overnight (adv.) Look up overnight at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from over- + night (n.). Originally "on the preceding evening;" sense of "during the night" is attested from 1530s. Meaning "in the course of a single night, hence seemingly instantaneously" is attested from 1939.
overpark (v.) Look up overpark at Dictionary.com
1938, American English, from over- + park (v.). Related: Overparked; overparking.
overpass (n.) Look up overpass at Dictionary.com
"stretch of road that passes over another," 1929, American English, from over- + pass (v.). + Overpass has been a verb since late 13c.
overpay (v.) Look up overpay at Dictionary.com
c. 1600, from over- + pay (v.). Related: Overpaid; overpaying.
overplay (v.) Look up overplay at Dictionary.com
"to emphasize (something) too much," 1933, a metaphor from card games, in to overplay (one's) hand, "to spoil one's hand by bidding in excess of its value" (1926), from over- + play (v.). The word was used earlier in a theatrical sense. Related: Overplayed; overplaying.
overpower (v.) Look up overpower at Dictionary.com
"to overcome with superior power," 1590s, from over- + power (v.). Related: Overpowered; overpowering.
overprice (v.) Look up overprice at Dictionary.com
"to price (something) excessively high," c. 1600, from over- + price (v.). Related: Overpriced; overpricing.
overproduction (n.) Look up overproduction at Dictionary.com
1822, from over- + production.
overprotection (n.) Look up overprotection at Dictionary.com
1929, originally in reference to children, from over- + protection.
overprotective (adj.) Look up overprotective at Dictionary.com
also over-protective, 1930, from over- + protective. Related: Overprotectively; overprotectiveness.
overrate (v.) Look up overrate at Dictionary.com
1610s, from over- + rate (v.). Related: Overrated; overrating.
overreach (v.) Look up overreach at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "to reach above or beyond" (transitive), from over- + reach (v.). Meaning "to extend over something, to cover it" is from c. 1400. Sense of "to reach beyond one's strength" is from 1560s. As a noun from 1550s. Related: Overreached; overreaching.
override (v.) Look up override at Dictionary.com
Old English oferridan "to ride across," from ofer "over" (see over) + ridan "to ride" (see ride (v.)). Originally literal, of cavalry, etc. Figurative meaning "to set aside arrogantly" is from 1827. The mechanical sense "to suspend automatic operation" is attested from 1946. As a noun in this sense from 1946. Related: Overrode; overriding; overridden.
overrule (v.) Look up overrule at Dictionary.com
"rule against; set aside, as by a higher authority," 1590s, from over- + rule (v.). It was used earlier in a sense "to govern, control" (1570s). Related: Overruled; overruling.
overrun (v.) Look up overrun at Dictionary.com
Old English oferyrnan; see over- + run (v.). The noun meaning "excess expenditure over budget" is from 1956. Related: Overran; overrunning.
overseas (adj.) Look up overseas at Dictionary.com
1580s, from over + sea. Popularized during World War I as a British euphemism for "colonial."
oversee (v.) Look up oversee at Dictionary.com
Old English oferseon "to look down upon, keep watch over, survey, observe;" see over + see (v.). Meaning "to supervise" is attested from mid-15c. The verb lacks the double sense of similar overlook, but this emerges in the noun form oversight. Related: Oversaw; overseen.
overseer (n.) Look up overseer at Dictionary.com
late 14c., agent noun from oversee (v.).
overshadow (v.) Look up overshadow at Dictionary.com
Old English ofersceadwian "to cast a shadow over, obscure;" see over + shadow (v.). It was used to render Latin obumbrare in New Testament, as were Middle High German überschatewen, Middle Dutch overschaduwen, Gothic ufarskadwjan. Figurative sense is from 1580s. Related: Overshadowed; overshadowing.
overshoe (n.) Look up overshoe at Dictionary.com
1829, from over- + shoe (n.). Related: Overshoes.
overshoot (v.) Look up overshoot at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to shoot, run, or pass beyond (a point or limit)," over- + shoot (v.). Related: Overshot; overshooting.
overshot (adj.) Look up overshot at Dictionary.com
1530s, in reference to water-wheels, "driven by water shot over from above," past participle adjective from overshoot.
oversight (n.) Look up oversight at Dictionary.com
"supervision," early 14c., from over- + sight. Meaning "omission of notice, fact of passing over without seeing" attested from late 15c.; compare oversee.
oversimplification (n.) Look up oversimplification at Dictionary.com
also over-simpification, 1835, from over- + simplification.
oversimplify (v.) Look up oversimplify at Dictionary.com
1908, from over- + simplify. Related: Oversimplified; oversimplifying.
oversized (adj.) Look up oversized at Dictionary.com
1788, past participle adjective from oversize "make too large" (1670s), from over- + size (v.).
oversleep (v.) Look up oversleep at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from over- + sleep (v.). Related: Overslept; oversleeping. Old English had a noun oferslæp "too much sleep."
overspend (v.) Look up overspend at Dictionary.com
1610s, "to wear out," from over- + spend. Meaning "to spend more than is necessary" is attested from 1857. Related: Overspent; overspending.
overspread (v.) Look up overspread at Dictionary.com
c. 1200, "to spread throughout," from over- + spread (v.). Related: Overspread (past tense); overspreading. Old English had ofersprædan "to overlay, cover."
overstand (v.) Look up overstand at Dictionary.com
"to stand over or beside," from Old English oferstandan; see over- + stand (v.).
overstate (v.) Look up overstate at Dictionary.com
1630s, "assume too much grandeur;" see over- + state (n.1). Meaning "state too strongly" is attested from 1798, from state (v.). Related: Overstated, overstating.
overstatement (n.) Look up overstatement at Dictionary.com
1803, from over- + statement.
overstep (v.) Look up overstep at Dictionary.com
Old English ofersteppan "to step over or beyond, cross, exceed;" see over- + step (v.). From the beginning used in figurative senses. Related: Overstepped; overstepping.
overstock (v.) Look up overstock at Dictionary.com
1640s, from over- + stock (v.). Related: Overstocked; overstocking. The noun is attested from 1710.
overstrong (adj.) Look up overstrong at Dictionary.com
"too powerful, too harsh," early 13c., from over- + strong (adj.).
overt (adj.) Look up overt at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "open to view," from Old French overt (Modern French ouvert), past participle of ovrir "to open," from Latin aperire "to open, uncover," from PIE compound *ap-wer-yo- from *ap- "off, away" (see apo-) + root *wer- (4) "to cover." Compare Latin operire "to cover," from the same root with PIE prefix *op- "over;" and Lithuanian atveriu "open," uzveriu "shut."
overtake (v.) Look up overtake at Dictionary.com
"to come up to, to catch in pursuit," early 13c., from over- + take (v.). According to OED, originally "the running down and catching of a fugitive or beast of chase"; it finds the sense of over- in this word "not so clear." Related: Overtaken; overtaking. Old English had oferniman "to take away, carry off, seize, ravish."
overtax (v.) Look up overtax at Dictionary.com
1640s, "to demand too much of," from over- + tax (v.). Related: Overtaxed; overtaxing.
overthrow (v.) Look up overthrow at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "to knock down," from over- + throw (v.). Figurative sense of "to cast down from power, defeat" is attested from late 14c. Related: Overthrown; overthrowing. Earlier in same senses was overwerpen "to overturn (something), overthrow; destroy," from Old English oferweorpan (see warp (v.)).