participative (adj.) Look up participative at
1650s, from participate + -ive.
participatory (adj.) Look up participatory at
1833, from participate + -ory. Participatory democracy attested from 1965, a term from student protests.
participial (adj.) Look up participial at
1590s, from Middle French participial and directly from Latin participialis, from participium (see participle). As a noun from 1560s.
participle (n.) Look up participle at
late 14c., "a noun-adjective," from Old French participle (13c.), variant of participe, from Latin participium, literally "a sharing, partaking," from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation). In grammatical sense, the Latin translates Greek metokhe "sharer, partaker," and the notion is of a word "partaking" of the nature of both a noun and an adjective.
particle (n.) Look up particle at
late 14c., "small part or division of a whole, minute portion of matter," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "part;" see part (n.). Particle physics attested from 1969. In construction, particle board (1957) is so called because it is made from chips and shavings of wood.
particular (adj.) Look up particular at
late 14c., "pertaining to a single thing or person," from Old French particuler (14c., Modern French particulier) and directly from Late Latin particularis "of a part, concerning a small part," from Latin particula "particle" (see particle). Sense of "precise, exacting" first recorded 1814.
particular (n.) Look up particular at
"a part or section of a whole," late 14c., from particular (adj.). Particulars "small details of statement" is from c. 1600.
particularity (n.) Look up particularity at
1520s, from Middle French particularité, from Late Latin particularitatem (nominative particularitas), from Latin particularis (see particular).
particularize (v.) Look up particularize at
1580s, from particular + -ize. Related: Particularized; particularizing.
particularly (adv.) Look up particularly at
"in a special degree, more than others," 1670s, from particular (adj.) + -ly (2).
particulate (adj.) Look up particulate at
1871, from Modern Latin particulatus, from particula (see particle). As a noun from 1960. Related: Particulates.
parting (n.) Look up parting at
"action of going away," c. 1300, verbal noun from part (v.). As "separation of persons," early 14c.
partisan (n.) Look up partisan at
also partizan, 1550s, "one who takes part with another, zealous supporter," from Middle French partisan (15c.), from dialectal upper Italian partezan (Tuscan partigiano) "member of a faction, partner," from parte "part, party," from Latin partem (nominative pars), see part (n.). Sense of "guerilla fighter" is first recorded 1690s.
partisan (adj.) Look up partisan at
1708 for warfare, 1842 for politics, from partisan (n.).
partisanship (n.) Look up partisanship at
1831, from partisan + -ship.
partition (n.) Look up partition at
early 15c., "division into shares, distinction," from Old French particion (12c.), from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, division, partition, distribution; method of dividing," from past participle stem of partire "to part" (see part (v.)). Sense of "that which separates" first recorded late 15c.
partition (v.) Look up partition at
1741, from partition (n.). Related: Partitioned; partitioning.
partitive (adj.) Look up partitive at
late 14c., "having the quality of dividing into parts," from Late Latin partitivus, from Latin partitus, past participle of partire "to divide" (see part (v.)).
partly (adv.) Look up partly at
1520s, from part (n.) + -ly (2).
partner (n.) Look up partner at
c. 1300, altered from parcener (late 13c.), from Old French parçonier "partner, associate; joint owner, joint heir," from parçon "partition, division. portion, share, lot," from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, partition, division, distribution" (see partition (n.)). Form in English influenced by part (n.). The word also may represent Old French part tenour "part holder."
partner (v.) Look up partner at
1610s, transitive, "to make a partner," from partner (n.). Intransitive sense from 1961. Related: Partnered; partnering.
partnership (n.) Look up partnership at
1570s, from partner (n.) + -ship. In the commercial sense from c. 1700.
partridge (n.) Look up partridge at
late 12c., from Old French pertis, alteration of perdis (perhaps influenced by fem. suffix -tris), from Latin perdicem (nominative perdix) "plover, lapwing," from Greek perdix, the Greek partridge, probably related to perdesthai "to break wind," in reference to the whirring noise of the bird's wings, from PIE imitative base *perd- "to break wind" (cognates: Sanskrit pardate "breaks wind," Lithuanian perdzu, Russian perdet, Old High German ferzan, Old Norse freta, Middle English farten).
parts (n.) Look up parts at
"personal qualities, gifts of ability," 1560s, from part (n.).
parturient (adj.) Look up parturient at
"about to give birth," 1590s, from Latin parturientem (nominative parturiens), present participle of parturire "be in labor," literally "desire to bring forth," desiderative of parere "to bear" (see pare). Related: Parturiency.
parturition (n.) Look up parturition at
1640s, from Latin parturitionem (nominative parturitio), noun of action from past participle stem of parturire (see parturient).
party (n.) Look up party at
late 13c., "part, portion, side," from Old French partie "side, part; portion, share; separation, division" (12c.), literally "that which is divided," noun use of fem. past participle of partir "to divide" (see part (v.)). Political sense of "side in a contest or dispute" evolved by 1300; meaning "a person" is from mid-15c. Sense of "gathering for social pleasure" is first found 1716, from general sense of persons gathered together (originally for some specific purpose, such as dinner party, hunting party). Phrase the party is over is from 1937; party line is first recorded 1834 in the sense of "policy adopted by a political party," 1893 in the sense of "telephone line shared by two or more subscribers." Party pooper is from 1951, American English.
party (v.) Look up party at
"have a good time," 1922, from party (n.). Earlier as "to take the side of" (1630s). Related: Partied; partying.
parvenu (n.) Look up parvenu at
"upstart," 1802, from French parvenu, "said of an obscure person who has made a great fortune" (Littré); noun use of past participle of parvenir "to arrive" (12c.), from Latin pervenire "to come up, arrive, attain," from per- "through" (see per (prep.)) + venire "to come" (see venue). As an adjective from 1828.
parvi- Look up parvi- at
word-forming element used in science and meaning "small, little," from comb. form of Latin parvus "small," from metathesized form of PIE *pau-ro-, from base *pau- "few, little" (see few).
parvovirus (n.) Look up parvovirus at
1965, from parvi- + connecting element -o- + virus.
Parzival Look up Parzival at
also Parsifal, hero of medieval legends, from Old French Perceval, literally "he who breaks through the valley," from percer "to pierce, break through" (see pierce) + val "valley" (see vale).
pas (n.) Look up pas at
"a step in dancing," 1775, from French pas; see pass (n.). Used in forming names for types of dances, such as pas de deux (1762).
pas devant les enfants Look up pas devant les enfants at
French: "Not in front of the children."
high-level computer programming language, 1971, named for French scholar Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who invented a calculating machine c. 1642.
Pasch Look up Pasch at
"Easter," early 12c.; see paschal.
paschal (adj.) Look up paschal at
early 15c., "of or pertaining to Easter," from Old French paschal (12c.) and directly from Late Latin paschalis, from pascha "Passover, Easter," from Greek pascha "Passover," from Aramaic pasha "pass over," corresponding to Hebrew pesah, from pasah "he passed over." (see Passover). Pasche was an early Middle English term for "Easter" (see Easter).
pash (n.) Look up pash at
"head," 1610s, now obsolete or dialectal, of uncertain origin. In 20c. the word was used as an colloquial shortening of passion.
pasha Look up pasha at
Turkish honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank, 1640s, from Turkish pasha, earlier basha, from bash "head, chief" (no clear distinction between -b- and -p- in Turkish), from Old Persian pati- "master," from PIE *poti- (see potent) + root of shah. Earlier in English as bashaw (1530s).
pashmina (adj.) Look up pashmina at
from Persian pashmin "woolen," from pashm "wool, down," from PIE *pek- "to pluck out" (see fight (v.)).
Pashto (n.) Look up Pashto at
1784, from Persian pashto (Afghan pakhto). Related: Pashtun.
Pasiphae Look up Pasiphae at
wife of Minos, mother of Phaedra and Ariadne, from Latin, from Greek Pasiphae, from pasiphaes "shining for all," from pasi "for all," dative plural of pas, pan "all" (see pan-) + phaos "light" (see fantasy).
pasquinade (n.) Look up pasquinade at
"a lampoon," 1650s, from Middle French, from Italian pasquinata (c. 1500), from Pasquino, name given to a mutilated ancient statue (now known to represent Menelaus dragging the dead Patroclus) set up by Cardinal Caraffa in his palace in Rome in 1501; the locals named it after a schoolmaster (or tailor, or barber) named Pasquino who lived nearby. A custom developed of posting satirical verses and lampoons on the statue.
pass (v.) Look up pass at
late 13c. (transitive) "to go by (something)," also "to cross over," from Old French passer (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *passare "to step, walk, pass" (source also of Spanish pasar, Italian passare), from Latin passus "step, pace" (see pace (n.)). Intransitive sense of "to go on, to move forward, make one's way" is attested from c. 1300. Figurative sense of "to experience, undergo" (as in pass the time) is first recorded late 14c. Sense of "to go through an examination successfully" is from early 15c. Meaning "decline to do something" is attested from 1869, originally in cards (euchre). In football, hockey, soccer, etc., the meaning "to transfer the ball or puck to another player" is from c. 1865. Related: Passed; passing.

The meaning "to be thought to be something one is not" (especially in racial sense) is from 1935, from pass oneself off (as), first found 1809. The general verb sense of "to be accepted as equivalent" is from 1590s. Pass up "decline, refuse" is attested from 1896. Pass the buck is from 1865, said to be poker slang reference to the buck horn-handled knife that was passed around to signify whose turn it was to deal. Pass the hat "seek contributions" is from 1762. Pass-fail as a grading method is attested from 1955, American English.
pass (n.1) Look up pass at
"mountain defile," c. 1300, from Old French pas "step, track, passage," from Latin passus "step, pace" (see pace (n.)).
pass (n.2) Look up pass at
"written permission to pass into, or through, a place," 1590s, from pass (v.). Sense of "ticket for a free ride or admission" is first found 1838. Colloquial make a pass "offer an amorous advance" first recorded 1928, perhaps from a sporting sense. Phrase come to pass (late 15c.) uses the word with a sense of "completion, accomplishment."
pass out (v.) Look up pass out at
"lose consciousness," 1915, from pass (v.) + out. Probably from weakened sense of earlier meaning "to die" (1899). Meaning "to distribute" is attested from 1926. Related: Passed out.
passable (adj.) Look up passable at
early 15c., "that may be crossed," from pass (v.) + -able, or from Old French passable "fordable, affording passage" (14c.). Sense of "tolerable" is first attested late 15c. Related: Passably.
passacaglia (n.) Look up passacaglia at
dance tune of Spanish origin, 1650s, from Italian, from Spanish pasacalle, from pasar "to pass" (see pass (v.)) + calle "street." So called because they often were played in the streets.
passage (n.) Look up passage at
early 13c., "a road, passage;" late 13c., "action of passing," from Old French passage "mountain pass, passage" (11c.), from passer "to go by" (see pass (v.)). Meaning "corridor in a building" first recorded 1610s. Meaning "a portion of writing" is from 1610s, of music, from 1670s.