pigmentation (n.)
1866, from pigment + -ation. Perhaps modeled on French.
pigmentocracy (n.)
1952, apparently coined in the "Economist," from pigment + -cracy.
pigmy
see pygmy.
pigskin (n.)
"saddle leather," 1855, from pig (n.) + skin (n.). As slang for "football" from 1894.
pigsney (n.)
(obsolete), late 14c., endearing form of address to a girl or woman, apparently from Middle English pigges eye, literally "pig's eye," with excrescent -n- from min eye, an eye, etc. See OED for explanation of why this might have been felt as a compliment. In a pig's eye! as an adverse retort is recorded from 1872.
pigsty (n.)
1590s, from pig (n.) + sty. Figurative use for "miserable, dirty hovel" is attested from 1820.
pigtail (n.)
1680s, "tobacco in a twisted roll," from pig (n.) + tail (n.). So called from resemblance. Meaning "braid of hair" is from 1753, when it was a fashion among soldiers and sailors. Applied variously to other objects or parts thought to resemble this in appearance.
pika
rabbit-like animal of Siberia and North America, 1827, from Tunguse piika.
pike (n.1)
"highway," 1812 shortening of turnpike.
pike (n.2)
"weapon with a long shaft and a pointed metal head," 1510s, from Middle French pique "a spear; pikeman," from piquer "to pick, puncture, pierce," from Old French pic "sharp point or spike," a general continental term (Spanish pica, Italian picca, Provençal piqua), perhaps ultimately from a Germanic [Barnhart] or Celtic source (see pike (n.4)). Alternative explanation traces the Old French word (via Vulgar Latin *piccare "to prick, pierce") to Latin picus "woodpecker." "Formerly the chief weapon of a large part of the infantry; in the 18th c. superseded by the bayonet" [OED]; hence old expressions such as pass through pikes "come through difficulties, run the gauntlet;" push of pikes "close-quarters combat." German Pike, Dutch piek, Danish pik, etc. are from French pique.
pike (n.3)
"voracious freshwater fish," early 14c., probably short for pike-fish, a special use of pike (n.2) in reference to the fish's long, pointed jaw, and in part from French brochet "pike" (fish), from broche "a roasting spit."
pike (n.4)
"pick used in digging," Middle English pik, pyk, collateral (long-vowel) form of pic (source of pick (n.1)), from Old English piic "pointed object, pickaxe," perhaps from a Celtic source (compare Gaelic pic "pickaxe," Irish pice "pike, pitchfork"). Extended early 13c. to "pointed tip" of anything. Pike, pick, and pitch formerly were used indifferently in English. Pike position in diving, gymnastics, etc., attested from 1928, perhaps on the notion of "tapering to a point."
pikeman (n.)
"soldier armed with a pike," 16c., from pike (n.2) + man (n.).
piker (n.)
"miserly person," 1872, formerly "poor migrant to California" (1860), earlier pike (1854), perhaps originally "vagrant who wanders the pike (n.1)" (which is the notion in Sussex dialectal piker "vagrant, tramp, gypsy," 1838), but Barnhart, OED and others suggest the American English word ultimately is a reference to people from Pike County, Missouri.
pilaf (n.)
oriental dish of rice boiled with meat, 1610s, from Turkish pilav, from Persian pilaw. Spelling influenced by Modern Greek pilafi, from the Turkish word.
pilar (adj.)
"pertaining to hair," 1858, from Modern Latin pilaris "hairy," from pilus "hair" (see pile (n.3)).
pilaster (n.)
a square column, 1570s, from Middle French pilastre (1540s), from Italian pilastro, from Medieval Latin pilastrum (mid-14c.), from pila, "buttress, pile" (from Latin pila, see pillar) + Latin -aster, suffix "expressing incomplete resemblance" [Barnhart].
Pilate (n.)
c.1400 as a term of reproach, from the Roman surname, especially that of Pontius, a governor of Judaea, from Latin Pilatus, literally "armed with javelins," from pilum "javelin" (see pile (n.2)). Among slang and cant uses of Pontius Pilate mentioned in the 1811 "Dictionary of Buckish Slang, University Wit and Pickpocket Eloquence" is "(Cambridge) a Mr. Shepherd of Trinity College; who disputing with a brother parson on the comparative rapidity with which they read the liturgy, offered to give him as far as Pontius Pilate in the Belief."
Pilates
c.1980, physical fitness regimen developed c.1920 by German-born physical fitness teacher Joseph Pilates (1883-1967).
pilchard (n.)
fish of the herring family, 1540s, earlier pilcher (1520s), of unknown origin. The -d- is "excrescent" [OED].
pile (n.1)
"mass, heap," early 15c., originally "pillar, pier of a bridge," from Middle French pile and directly from Latin pila "stone barrier, pillar, pier" (see pillar). Sense development in Latin from "pier, harbor wall of stones," to "something heaped up." In English, sense of "heap of things" is attested from mid-15c. (the verb in this sense is recorded from mid-14c.). The meaning "large building" (late 14c.) is probably the same word.
pile (n.2)
"heavy pointed beam," from Old English pil "stake," also "arrow," from Latin pilum heavy javelin of the Roman foot soldier, literally "pestle" (source of Old Norse pila, Old High German pfil, German Pfeil "arrow"), of uncertain origin.
pile (n.3)
"soft, raised surface upon cloth," mid-14c., "downy plumage," from Anglo-French pyle or Middle Dutch pijl, both from Latin pilus "a hair" (source of Italian pelo, Old French pel). Phonological evidence rules out transmission of the English word via Old French cognate peil, poil. Meaning "nap upon cloth" is from 1560s.
pile (v.)
"to heap up," mid-14c.; see pile (n.1). Related: Piled; piling. Figurative verbal expression pile on "attack vigorously, attack en masse," is from 1894, American English.
pile-driver (n.)
1772 in literal sense, from pile (n.2) + driver. Figurative sense of "very strong hit" is recorded from 1858.
pile-up (n.)
"multi-vehicle crash," 1929, from verbal phrase pile up, which is from 1849 as "accumulate," 1899 as "to wreck in a heap" (see pile (v.)).
pileated (adj.)
1728, from Latin pileatus "capped," from pileus "felt cap without a brim," from Greek pilos. Applied in natural history to certain birds and sea urchins.
piles (n.)
"hemorrhoids," c.1400, from Medieval Latin pili "piles," probably from Latin pila "ball" (see pill (n.)); so called from shape.
pilfer (v.)
1540s, from pilfer (n.) "spoils, booty," c.1400, from Old French pelfre "booty, spoils" (11c.), of unknown origin, possibly related to pelf. Related: Pilfered; pilfering.
pilferage (n.)
1620s, from pilfer + -age.
pilgrim (n.)
c.1200, pilegrim, from Old French pelerin, peregrin "pilgrim, crusader; foreigner, stranger" (11c., Modern French pèlerin), from Late Latin pelegrinus, dissimilated from Latin peregrinus "foreigner" (source of Italian pellegrino, Spanish peregrino), from peregre (adv.) "from abroad," from per- "beyond" + agri, locative case of ager "country" (see acre).

Change of first -r- to -l- in most Romance languages by dissimilation; the -m appears to be a Germanic modification. Pilgrim Fathers "English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony" is first found 1799 (they called themselves Pilgrims from c.1630, in reference to Hebrew xi:13).
pilgrimage (n.)
late 13c., pelrimage; from pilgrim + -age and also from Old French pelrimage, pelerinage "pilgrimage, distant journey, crusade," from peleriner "to go on a pilgrimage." Modern spelling from early 14c.
Pilipino
1936, from Tagalog form of obsolete Spanish Pilipino (see Filipino).
pill (n.)
"small ball or round mass of medicine," c.1400, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German pille and Middle French pile, all from Latin pilula "pill," literally "little ball," diminutive of pila "a ball, playing ball," said to be related to pilus "hair" if the original notion was "hairball." Figurative sense "something disagreeable that must be swallowed" is from 1540s; slang meaning "boring person" is recorded from 1871. The pill "contraceptive pill" is from 1957.
pill (v.)
1736, "to dose on pills," from pill (n.). From 1882 as "to form into pills." Related: Pilled; pilling.
pillage (n.)
late 14c., "act of plundering" (especially in war), from Old French pilage (14c.) "plunder," from pillier "to plunder, loot, ill-treat," possibly from Vulgar Latin *piliare "to plunder," probably from a figurative use of Latin pilare "to strip of hair," perhaps also meaning "to skin" (compare figurative extension of verbs pluck, fleece), from pilus "a hair" (see pile (n.3)).
pillage (v.)
"plunder, despoil," 1590s, from pillage (n.). Related: Pillaged; pillaging. The earlier verb in English was simply pill (late Old English), which probably is from Latin pilare.
pillar (n.)
c.1200, from Old French piler "pillar, column, pier" (12c., Modern French pilier) and directly from Medieval Latin pilare, from Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier." Figurative sense of "prop or support of an institution or community" is first recorded early 14c. Phrase pillar to post is c.1600, originally of tennis, exact meaning obscure.
pillbox (n.)
also pill-box, "box for holding pills," 1730, from pill (n.) + box (n.). As a small round concrete machine gun nest, it came into use in World War I. As a type of hat, attested from 1958.
pillbug (n.)
also pill-bug, 1841, from pill (n.) + bug (n.).
piller (n.)
"plunderer," early 14c., from obsolete verb pill "to plunder, to pillage" (see pillage (v.)).
pillion (n.)
kind of saddle, c.1500, of Celtic origin (compare Irish pillin, Gaelic pillin), ultimately from Latin pellis "skin, pelt" (see film (n.)).
pillock (n.)
1530s, dialectal variant of Middle English pillicock (see cock (n.1)). Meaning "stupid person" is attested by 1967.
pillory (n.)
late 13c. (attested in Anglo-Latin from late 12c.), from Old French pilori "pillory" (mid-12c.), related to Medieval Latin pilloria, of uncertain origin, perhaps a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier" (see pillar), but OED finds this proposed derivation "phonologically unsuitable."
pillory (v.)
c.1600, from pillory (n.). Figurative sense of "expose publicly to ridicule or abuse" is from 1690s. Related: Pilloried.
pillow (n.)
Middle English pilwe, from Old English pyle "pillow," from West Germanic *pulwi(n) (cognates: Old Saxon puli, Middle Dutch polu, Dutch peluw, Old High German pfuliwi, German Pfühl), an early borrowing (2c. or 3c.) from Latin pulvinus "little cushion, small pillow," of uncertain origin. Modern spelling is from mid-15c. Pillow fight (n.) attested from 1837; slang pillow talk (n.) first recorded 1939.
pillow (v.)
1620s, from pillow (n.). Related: Pillowed; pillowing.
pilon (n.)
1892, from Mexican Spanish, from Spanish pilón "sugar loaf."
pilot (n.)
1510s, "one who steers a ship," from Middle French pillote (16c.), from Italian piloto, supposed to be an alteration of Old Italian pedoto, which usually is said to be from Medieval Greek *pedotes "rudder, helmsman," from Greek pedon "steering oar," related to pous (genitive podos) "foot" (see foot (n.)). Change of -d- to -l- in Latin ("Sabine -l-") parallels that in odor/olfactory; see lachrymose.

Sense extended 1848 to "one who controls a balloon," and 1907 to "one who flies an airplane." As an adjective, 1788 as "pertaining to a pilot;" from 1928 as "serving as a prototype." Thus the noun pilot meaning "pilot episode" (etc.), attested from 1962. Pilot light is from 1890.
pilot (v.)
1640s, "to guide, lead;" 1690s, "to conduct as a pilot," from pilot (n.) or from French piloter. Related: Piloted; piloting.