paralytic Look up paralytic at Dictionary.com
c.1300 (adj.), late 14c. (n.), from Old French paralitique "paralyzed, unmoving," from Latin paralyticus, from Greek paralytikos, from paralysis (see paralysis).
paralyze (v.) Look up paralyze at Dictionary.com
1804, from French paralyser (16c.), from Old French paralisie "paralysis," from Latin paralysis (see paralysis). Figurative use from 1805. Related: Paralyzed; paralyzing.
paramagnetic (adj.) Look up paramagnetic at Dictionary.com
1850, from para- (1) + magnetic.
paramecium (n.) Look up paramecium at Dictionary.com
1752, Modern Latin Paramecium, the genus name, coined from Greek paramekes "oblong, oval," from para- "on one side" (see para- (1)) + mekos "length," related to makros "long" (see macro-).
paramedic (n.) Look up paramedic at Dictionary.com
"medical technician," 1970, back-formation from paramedical. The meaning "medical corpsman who parachutes" is 1951 from para(chute) + medic.
paramedical (adj.) Look up paramedical at Dictionary.com
"related to medicine in an auxiliary capacity," 1908, from para- (1) + medical.
parameter (n.) Look up parameter at Dictionary.com
1650s in geometry, from Modern Latin parameter (1630s), from Greek para- "beside, subsidiary" (see para- (1)) + metron "measure" (see meter (n.2)).

A geometry term until 1920s when it yielded sense of "measurable factor which helps to define a particular system" (1927). Common modern meaning (influenced by perimeter) of "boundary, limit, characteristic factor" is from 1950s. Related: Parametric.
paramilitary (adj.) Look up paramilitary at Dictionary.com
1935, from para- (1) + military.
paramount (adj.) Look up paramount at Dictionary.com
1530s, from Anglo-French paramont, Old French paramont "above" (in place, order, degree), mid-14c., from Old French par "by," from Latin per "through, for, by" (see per (prep.)) + amont "up," from a mont "upward" (see amount (v.)). The whole from Latin per ad montem, literally "to the hill."
paramour (n.) Look up paramour at Dictionary.com
c.1300, noun use of adverbial phrase par amour (c.1300) "passionately, with strong love or desire," from Anglo-French and Old French par amour, from accusative of amor "love," from amare "to love" (see Amy). Originally a term for Christ (by women) or the Virgin Mary (by men), it came to mean "darling, sweetheart" (mid-14c.) and "mistress, concubine, clandestine lover" (late 14c.).
paranoia (n.) Look up paranoia at Dictionary.com
"mental disorder characterized by systematized delusions," 1848 (earlier paranoea 1811), from Greek paranoia "mental derangement, madness," from paranoos "mentally ill, insane," from para- "beside, beyond" (see para- (1)) + noos "mind."
FOR several years frequent descriptions have been given in the foreign journals, especially German and Italian, of the forms of insanity designated by the names Paranoia, Verrücktkeit, and Wahnsinn. ["Paranoia -- Systematized Delusions and Mental Degenerations," J. Séglas (transl. William Noyes), 1888]
paranoiac Look up paranoiac at Dictionary.com
1892 (n. and adj.), from paranoia on model of maniac, etc.
paranoid (adj.) Look up paranoid at Dictionary.com
1901, irregularly formed from paranoia + -oid. As a noun, "a paranoid person," attested from 1922.
paranormal (adj.) Look up paranormal at Dictionary.com
1905, from para- (1) + normal. Related: Paranormally.
parapet (n.) Look up parapet at Dictionary.com
1580s, from Middle French parapet "breastwork" (16c.), or directly from Italian parapetto, from para- "defense" (see para- (2)) + petto "breast," from Latin pectus (see pectoral (adj.)).
paraphernalia (n.) Look up paraphernalia at Dictionary.com
1650s, "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Medieval Latin paraphernalia (short for paraphernalia bona "paraphernal goods"), neuter plural of paraphernalis (adj.), from Late Latin parapherna "a woman's property besides her dowry," from Greek parapherna, neuter plural, from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + pherne "dowry," related to pherein "to carry" (see infer). Meaning "equipment, apparatus" is first attested 1791, from notion of odds and ends.
paraphilia (n.) Look up paraphilia at Dictionary.com
1913, from German paraphilie (by 1903), apparently coined by Austrian ethnologist Friedrich Salomo Krauss (1859-1938) as literally "inverted erotic instinct," from Greek para- "beside, aside" (see para- (1)) + philos "loving" (see -phile).
The neurotic whose accompanying fancies always lead into forbidden ground (and this is what constitutes the guilt feeling of pollutions) fights against masturbation [pollutions] because it is connected with incest fancies, criminal desires, perversions, or as F.S. Krauss calls them, paraphilias. [Wm. J. Robinson, M.D., "Masturbation -- Injurious or Harmless," "American Journal of Urology," May 1913]



Krauss bereichert uns um das neue Wort "Paraphilie" anstelle der "Psychopathie," ein fortschrittlich-oppositionelles Wort zwar, aber auch nur ein Wort und als Aufklärung etwa so bedeutsam wie "Seitensprünge." ["Rezensionen" über die "Anthropophyteia Jahrbücher," Leipzig, 1907]
Popularized in psychology circles in English from c.1918 in translation of work by Viennese-born psychotherapist Wilhelm Stekel (1868-1940); not in widespread use until 1950s. first used in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" in 1980, as a morally neutral and more dignified label than perversion, to which it is nonetheless etymologically similar. Related: Paraphiliac; paraphilic.
paraphrase (n.) Look up paraphrase at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle French paraphrase (1520s), from Latin paraphrasis "a paraphrase," from Greek paraphrasis "a free rendering," from paraphrazein "to tell in other words," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + phrazein "to tell" (see phrase (n.)).
paraphrase (v.) Look up paraphrase at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from paraphrase (n.) or from French paraphraser. Related: Paraphrased; paraphrasing.
paraphrastic (adj.) Look up paraphrastic at Dictionary.com
from Medieval Latin paraphrasticus, from Greek paraphrastikos, from paraphrastes "one who paraphrases," from paraphrazein (see paraphrase (n.)). Related: Paraphrastical (1540s).
paraplegia (n.) Look up paraplegia at Dictionary.com
"paralysis of the lower half of the body," 1650s, Latinized form of (Ionic) Greek paraplegie "paralysis of one side of the body," from paraplessein "strike at the side," paraplessesthai "be stricken on one side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + plessein "to strike" (see plague (n.)).
paraplegic (adj.) Look up paraplegic at Dictionary.com
c.1822; see paraplegia + -ic. The noun meaning "paraplegic person" is first recorded 1890. An earlier adjectival form was paraplectic (1660s).
parapraxis (n.) Look up parapraxis at Dictionary.com
"faulty action, blunder," 1904, from Modern Latin, from para- "contrary" (see para- (1)) + Greek praxis "a doing, transaction, business" (see praxis). In psychology, a minor error held to reveal a subconscious motive.
paraprofessional (adj.) Look up paraprofessional at Dictionary.com
1962, from para- (1) + professional (adj.). As a noun from 1968.
parapsychology (n.) Look up parapsychology at Dictionary.com
1924, from para- (1) "beside" + psychology.
paraquat (n.) Look up paraquat at Dictionary.com
quick-acting herbicide, 1961, from para- (1) + first element in quaternary. So called in reference to its chemical configuration.
parasail (n.) Look up parasail at Dictionary.com
1963, from first element of parachute + sail. As a verb from 1970. Related: Parasailing.
parasite (n.) Look up parasite at Dictionary.com
1530s, "a hanger-on, a toady, person who lives on others," from Middle French parasite (16c.) or directly from Latin parasitus "toady, sponger," and directly from Greek parasitos "one who lives at another's expense, person who eats at the table of another," from noun use of an adjective meaning "feeding beside," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + sitos "food," of unknown origin. Scientific meaning "animal or plant that lives on others" is first recorded 1640s (implied in parasitical).
parasitic (adj.) Look up parasitic at Dictionary.com
1620s, from Latin parasiticus, from Greek parasitikos "of or pertaining to a parasite; the trade of a parasite," from parasitos (see parasite). Biological sense is from 1731. Related: Parasitical, 1570s in reference to toadies; from 1640s in the biological sense.
parasitism (n.) Look up parasitism at Dictionary.com
1610s, from parasite + -ism. Biological sense is from 1853.
parasol (n.) Look up parasol at Dictionary.com
1610s, from Middle French parasol (1570s), from Italian parasole, literally "protection from the sun," from para- "defense against" (see para- (2)) + sole "sun," from Latin solem (nominative sol; see sol).
parastate (n.) Look up parastate at Dictionary.com
also para-state, 1959, from para- (1) "beside" + state (n.). Related: Parastatal.
parasympathetic (adj.) Look up parasympathetic at Dictionary.com
1905, from para- (1) "beside" + sympathetic.
parataxis (n.) Look up parataxis at Dictionary.com
1838, from Greek parataxis "a placing side by side, a placing in line of battle," from stem of paratassein "to place side by side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + tassein "to arrange" (see tactics). Related: Paratactic.
paratransit (n.) Look up paratransit at Dictionary.com
also para-transit, 1973, from para- (1) + transit.
paratrooper (n.) Look up paratrooper at Dictionary.com
1941, from parachute + trooper. The collective noun paratroops is first recorded 1940. Earliest reference is to the German invaders who were expected to drop on England.
paratroops (n.) Look up paratroops at Dictionary.com
1940, from parachute + plural of troop (n.).
parboil (v.) Look up parboil at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to boil partially;" mid-15c., "to boil thoroughly," from Old French parboillir "to boil thoroughly," from Medieval Latin perbullire "to boil thoroughly," from Latin per "through, thoroughly" + bullire "to boil" (see boil (v.)). Main modern meaning "boil partially" is by mistaken association of the prefix with part. Related: Parboiled; parboiling.
parcel (n.) Look up parcel at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "a portion of something, a part" (sense preserved in phrase parcel of land, c.1400), from Old French parcele "small piece, particle, parcel," from Vulgar Latin *particella, diminutive of Latin particula "small part, little bit," itself a diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "part" (see part (n.)).

Meaning "package" is first recorded 1640s, earlier "a quantity of goods in a package" (mid-15c.), from late 14c. sense of "an amount or quantity of anything." The expression part and parcel (early 15c.) also preserves the older sense; both words mean the same, the multiplicity is for emphasis.
parcel (v.) Look up parcel at Dictionary.com
"to divide into small portions," early 15c. (with out), from parcel (n.). Related: Parceled; parcelled; parceling; parcelling.
parch (v.) Look up parch at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "to roast or dry" (peas, beans, corn, etc.), of uncertain origin. Klein and OED reject derivations from Old North French perchier (Old French percer) "to pierce" and Latin persiccare "to dry thoroughly." Barnhart suggests possibly from Middle English perchen, variant of perishen "to perish" (see perish). Klein "tentatively" suggests a back-formation from parchment. Surname Parchecorn is attested from mid-14c. Meaning "to dry with excessive heat" is mid-15c. Related: Parched; parching.
parcheesi (n.) Look up parcheesi at Dictionary.com
1800, from Hindi pachisi, from pachis "twenty-five" (highest throw of the dice), from Sanskrit panca "five" (see five) + vinsati-s "twenty." Modern spelling outside India, with intrusive -r-, was enshrined 1892 by trademark name.
parchment (n.) Look up parchment at Dictionary.com
c.1300, parchemin (c.1200 as a surname), from Old French parchemin (11c., Old North French parcamin), from Late Latin pergamena "parchment," noun use of adjective (as in pergamena charta, Pliny), from Late Greek pergamenon "of Pergamon," from Pergamon "Pergamum" (modern Bergama), city in Mysia in Asia Minor where parchment supposedly first was adopted as a substitute for papyrus, 2c. B.C.E. Possibly influenced in Vulgar Latin by Latin parthica (pellis) "Parthian (leather)." Altered in Middle English by confusion with nouns in -ment and by influence of Medieval Latin collateral form pergamentum.
pard (n.1) Look up pard at Dictionary.com
archaic form of leopard, c.1300, from Latin pardus "a male panther," from Greek pardos "male panther," from the same source (probably Iranian) as Sanskrit prdaku-s "leopard, tiger, snake," and Persian palang "panther."
pard (n.2) Look up pard at Dictionary.com
1850, dialectal shortening of pardener (1795), representing a common pronunciation of partner (n.).
pardon (n.) Look up pardon at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "papal indulgence," from Old French pardon, from pardoner "to grant; forgive" (11c., Modern French pardonner), "to grant, forgive," from Vulgar Latin *perdonare "to give wholeheartedly, to remit," from Latin per- "through, thoroughly" (see per) + donare "give, present" (see donation).

Meaning "passing over an offense without punishment" is from c.1300, also in the strictly ecclesiastical sense; sense of "pardon for a civil or criminal offense; release from penalty or obligation" is from late 14c. earlier in Anglo-French. Weaker sense of "excuse for a minor fault" is attested from 1540s.
pardon (v.) Look up pardon at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "to forgive for offense or sin," from Old French pardoner (see pardon (n.)).
'I grant you pardon,' said Louis XV to Charolais, who, to divert himself, had just killed a man; 'but I also pardon whoever will kill you.' [Marquis de Sade, "Philosophy in the Bedroom"]
Related: Pardoned; pardoning. Pardon my French as exclamation of apology for obscene language is from 1895.
pardonable (adj.) Look up pardonable at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Old French pardonable (12c.), from pardoner (see pardon (v.)). Related: Pardonably.
pardoner (n.) Look up pardoner at Dictionary.com
"man licensed to sell papal pardons or indulgences," mid-14c., agent noun from pardon (v.).
pare (v.) Look up pare at Dictionary.com
"to trim by cutting close," c.1300, from Old French parer "arrange, prepare; trim, adorn," and directly from Latin parare "make ready, prepare, furnish, provide, arrange, order; contrive, design, intend, resolve; procure, acquire, obtain, get; get with money, buy, purchase" (related to parere "produce, bring forth, give birth to"), from PIE *par-a-, suffixed form of root *pere- (1) "produce, procure, bring forward, bring forth," and derived words in diverse senses (cognates: Lithuanian pariu "to brood," Greek poris "calf, bull," Old High German farro, German Farre "bullock," Old English fearr "bull," Sanskrit prthukah "child, calf, young of an animal," Czech spratek "brat, urchin, premature calf"). Generalized meaning "to reduce something little by little" is from 1520s. Related: Pared; paring.