protozoic (adj.) Look up protozoic at Dictionary.com
1838, from proto- + Greek zoe "life" (see zoo) + -ic.
protract (v.) Look up protract at Dictionary.com
1530s, a back-formation from protraction and in part from Latin protractus, past participle of protrahere "to draw forth, prolong." Etymologically identical with portray, which was altered in French. Related: Protracted; protracting.
protraction (n.) Look up protraction at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "drawing or writing of numbers," from Middle French protraction (15c.) and directly from Late Latin protractionem (nominative protractio) "a drawing out or lengthening," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin protrahere "to draw forward, draw out, bring forth;" figuratively "bring to light, reveal, expose," from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + trahere "to draw" (see tract (n.1)). Meaning "act of drawing out or prolonging" is from 1530s.
protractor (n.) Look up protractor at Dictionary.com
1610s, "one who lengthens (an action)," from Medieval Latin protractor, agent noun from Latin protrahere "to draw forward" (see protraction); sense of "instrument for drawing angles" first recorded 1650s.
protrude (v.) Look up protrude at Dictionary.com
1610s, "to thrust forward or onward, to drive along;" 1640s, "to cause to stick out," from Latin protrudere "thrust forward; push out," from pro- "forward" (see pro-) + trudere "to thrust, push," from PIE *treud- "to press, push, squeeze" (see threat). Intransitive meaning "jut out, bulge forth" recorded from 1620s. Related: Protruded; protruding.
protrusion (n.) Look up protrusion at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French protrusion, noun of action from past participle stem of Latin protrudere "to push out" (see protrude), or from a similar formation in English.
protuberance (n.) Look up protuberance at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Late Latin protuberantem (nominative protuberans), present participle of protuberare "to swell, bulge, grow forth," from Latin pro- "forward" (see pro-) + tuber "lump, swelling" (see tuber).
protuberant (adj.) Look up protuberant at Dictionary.com
1640s, from French protubérant (16c.) and directly from Late Latin protuberantem (moninative protuberans), present participle of protuberare "to swell, bulge out" (see protuberance). Related: Protuberantly.
proud (adj.) Look up proud at Dictionary.com
late Old English prud, prute "excellent, splendid; arrogant, haughty," probably from Old French prud, oblique case of adjective prouz "brave, valiant" (11c., Modern French preux; compare prud'homme "brave man"), from Late Latin prode "advantageous, profitable" (source also of Italian prode "valiant"), a back-formation from Latin prodesse "be useful," from pro- "before, for, instead of" (see pro-) + esse "to be" (see essence). Also see pride (n.), prowess.

Meaning "elated by some act, fact, or thing" is from mid-13c. To do (someone) proud attested by 1819. Related: Proudness. "The -d- in prodesse is probably due to the influence of forms like red-eo-, 'I go back,' red-imo- 'I buy back,' etc." [OED]. The Old English form with -te probably is from or influenced by pride.

The sense of "have a high opinion of oneself," not found in Old French, might reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud." Old Norse pruðr, probably from the same French source, had only the sense "brave, gallant, magnificent, stately" (compare Icelandic pruður, Middle Swedish prudh, Middle Danish prud). Likewise a group of "pride" words in the Romance languages -- such as French orgueil, Italian orgoglio, Spanish orgullo -- are borrowings from Germanic, where they had positive senses (Old High German urgol "distinguished").

Most Indo-European languages use the same word for "proud" in its good and bad senses, but in many the bad sense seems to be the earlier one. The usual way to form the word is by some compound of terms for "over" or "high" and words for "heart," "mood," "thought," or "appearance;" such as Greek hyperephanos, literally "over-appearing;" Gothic hauhþuhts, literally "high-conscience." Old English had ofermodig "over-moody" ("mood" in Anglo-Saxon was a much more potent word than presently) and heahheort "high-heart." Words for "proud" in other Indo-European languages sometimes reflect a physical sense of being swollen or puffed up; such as Welsh balch, probably from a root meaning "to swell," and Modern Greek kamari, from ancient Greek kamarou "furnish with a vault or arched cover," with a sense evolution via "make an arch," to "puff out the chest," to "be puffed up" (compare English slang chesty).
proudly (adv.) Look up proudly at Dictionary.com
late Old English prutlice "arrogantly;" from proud + -ly (2). Meaning "with conscious honor" attested by 1753.
provable (adj.) Look up provable at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "approvable;" c. 1400, "that can be proved," from Old French provable, from prover (see prove (v.)).
prove (v.) Look up prove at Dictionary.com
late 12c., pruven, proven "to try, test; evaluate; demonstrate," from Old French prover, pruver "show; convince; put to the test" (11c., Modern French prouver), from Latin probare "to make good; esteem, represent as good; make credible, show, demonstrate; test, inspect; judge by trial" (source also of Spanish probar, Italian probare), from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from *pro-, extended form of root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per), + root *bhu- "to be" (cognates: Latin fui "I have been," futurus "about to be;" Old English beon "to be;" see be). Related: Proved; proven; proving.
provection (n.) Look up provection at Dictionary.com
1650s, "advancement" (obs.); 1868 in the sense "carrying of the final letter of a word into the next one" (as in newt), from Late Latin provectionem (nominative provectio) "advancement," noun of action from past participle stem provehere "to carry forward," from pro- "toward, ahead" (see pro-) + vehere "to carry" (see vehicle).
provedore Look up provedore at Dictionary.com
also providore, 1570s, from Portuguese provedor, Spanish proveedor, perhaps via Venetian dialect, from an agent noun from verbs rooted in Latin providere (see provide).
proven (adj.) Look up proven at Dictionary.com
1650s, past participle adjective from alternative past participle (originally in Scottish legal use) of prove (v).
provenance (n.) Look up provenance at Dictionary.com
1785, from French provenance "origin, production," from provenant, present participle of Middle French provenir "come forth, arise, originate," from Latin provenire "come forth, originate, appear, arise," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + venire "come" (see venue).
Provencal (adj.) Look up Provencal at Dictionary.com
1580s, from French Provençal, from Provence (see Provence). As a name of a language from 1640s. In reference to a style of cooking, attested from 1841.
Provence Look up Provence at Dictionary.com
from French Provence, from Latin provincia "province" (see province); the southern part of ancient Gaul technically was the province of Gallia Narbonensis, but it came under Roman rule long before the rest of Gaul and as the Romans considered it the province par excellence they familiarly called it (nostra) provincia "our province."
provender (n.) Look up provender at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, "allowance paid each chapter member of a cathedral," from Anglo-French provendir, Old French provendier "provider; recipient, beneficiary," from Gallo-Roman *provenda, altered (by influence of Latin providere "supply") from Late Latin praebenda "allowance, subsistence," from Latin praebenda "(things) to be furnished," neuter plural gerundive of praebere "to furnish, offer," from prae "before" (see pre-) + habere "to hold" (see habit (n.)). Meaning "food, provisions, etc." (especially dry food for horses) is recorded from mid-14c.
provenience (n.) Look up provenience at Dictionary.com
1881, a Latinization of provenance, or else from Latin provenientem (nominative proveniens), present participle of provenire "come forth" (see provenance). "Preferred to PROVENANCE by those who object to the French form of the latter" [OED].
proverb (n.) Look up proverb at Dictionary.com
c. 1300, in boke of Prouerbyys, the Old Testament work, from Old French proverbe (12c.) and directly from Latin proverbium "a common saying, old adage, maxim," literally "words put forward," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + verbum "word" (see verb). Used generally from late 14c. The Book of Proverbs in Old English was cwidboc, from cwide "speech, saying, proverb, homily," related to cwiddian "to talk, speak, say, discuss;" cwiddung "speech, saying, report."
proverbial (adj.) Look up proverbial at Dictionary.com
early 15c. (implied in proverbially.), from Late Latin proverbialis "pertaining to a proverb," from proverbium (see proverb).
provide (v.) Look up provide at Dictionary.com
early 15c., from Latin providere "look ahead, prepare, supply, act with foresight," from pro- "ahead" (see pro-) + videre "to see" (see vision). Related: Provided; providing. Earlier in same sense was purvey, which is the same word as deformed in Old French.
provided Look up provided at Dictionary.com
"with condition that," early 15c., conjunction use of past participle of provide. As an adjective, "prepared, ready," 1570s; "furnished" 1878.
providence (n.) Look up providence at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "foresight, prudent anticipation," from Old French providence "divine providence, foresight" (12c.) and directly from Latin providentia "foresight, precaution, foreknowledge," from providentem (nominative providens), present participle of providere (see provide).

Providence (usually capitalized) "God as beneficent caretaker," first recorded c. 1600, from earlier use of the word for "God's beneficient care or guidance" (14c.), short for divine providence, etc. The noun in Latin occasionally had a similar sense.
provident (adj.) Look up provident at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, from Latin providentem (nominative providens) "foreseeing, prudent," present participle of providere "to foresee" (see provide).
providential (adj.) Look up providential at Dictionary.com
1610s, "pertaining to foresifght" (implied in providentially); 1640s as "pertaining to divine providence," from Latin providentia (see providence) + -al (1). Meaning "by divine interposition" is recorded from 1719.
provider (n.) Look up provider at Dictionary.com
1520s, agent noun from provide.
province (n.) Look up province at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "country, territory, region," from Old French province "province, part of a country; administrative region for friars" (13c.) and directly from Latin provincia "territory outside Italy under Roman domination," also "a public office; public duty," of uncertain origin, usually explained as pro- "before" + vincere "to conquer" (see victor); but this does not suit the earliest Latin usages. Meaning "one's particular business or expertise" is from 1620s.
provincial (adj.) Look up provincial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "pertaining to a province," from Old French provincial "belonging to a particular province (of friars)" (13c.), from Latin provincialis "of a province," from provincia (see province).

Meaning "of the small towns and countryside" (as opposed to the capital and urban center) is from 1630s, a borrowed idiom from French, transferred from sense of "particular to the province," hence "local." Suggestive of rude, petty, or narrow society by 1755. Classical Latin provincialis seems not to have had this tinge. In British use, with reference to the American colonies, from 1680s.
provincial (n.) Look up provincial at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "ecclesiastical head of a province," from provincial (adj.). From c. 1600 as "native or inhabitant of a province;" from 1711 as "country person."
provincialism (n.) Look up provincialism at Dictionary.com
1820 in the political sense, "local attachment as opposed to national unity," from provincial + -ism. Meaning "manners or modes of a certain province or of provinces generally" (as opposed to the big city or capital) is from 1836. Sense of "a local word or usage or expression" is from 1770.
PROVINCIALISM consists in:
(a) An ignorance of the manners, customs and nature of people living outside one's own village, parish, or nation.
(b) A desire to coerce others into uniformity.
[Ezra Pound, "Provincialism the Enemy," 1917]
provinciality (n.) Look up provinciality at Dictionary.com
"quality or condition of being provincial," 1759, from provincial + -ity.
provision (n.) Look up provision at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "a providing beforehand, action of arranging in advance" (originally in reference to ecclesiastical appointments made before the position was vacant), from Old French provision "precaution, care" (early 14c.), from Latin provisionem (nominative provisio) "a foreseeing, foresight, preparation, prevention," noun of action from past participle stem of providere "look ahead" (see provide). Meaning "something provided" is attested from late 15c.; specific sense of "supply of food" is from c. 1600.
provision (v.) Look up provision at Dictionary.com
"to supply with provisions," 1787, from provision (n.). Related: Provisioned; provisioning.
provisional (adj.) Look up provisional at Dictionary.com
"as a temporary arrangement for the present," c. 1600, from provision (n.) + -al (1), or else from Middle French provisionnal (15c.), from Old French provision. The notion is of something that will "provide for present needs." Related: Provisionally.
provisioner (n.) Look up provisioner at Dictionary.com
1814, agent noun from provision (v.).
provisions (n.) Look up provisions at Dictionary.com
"supply of food," c. 1600; see provision.
proviso (n.) Look up proviso at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Medieval Latin proviso (quod) "provided (that)," phrase at the beginning of clauses in legal documents (mid-14c.), from Latin proviso "it being provided," ablative neuter of provisus, past participle of providere (see provide). Related: Provisory.
provocate (v.) Look up provocate at Dictionary.com
"to provoke, call forth," mid-15c., rare then and now obsolete, from Latin provocatus, past participle of provocare "to call out" (see provoke). Related: Provocated; provocating.
provocateur (n.) Look up provocateur at Dictionary.com
1915 (Emma Goldman), shortened form of agent provocateur "person hired to make trouble" (1845), from French provocateur, from Latin provocator "challenger," from provocare "to call out" (see provoke).
provocation (n.) Look up provocation at Dictionary.com
c. 1400, from Old French provocacion (12c.) and directly from Latin provocationem (nominative provocatio) "a calling forth, a summoning, a challenge," noun of action from past participle stem of provocare "to call out" (see provoke).
provocative (adj.) Look up provocative at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "eliciting," from Middle French provocatif (15c.) and directly from Late Latin provocativus "calling forth," from provocat-, past participle stem of Latin provocare (see provoke). Specifically of sexual desire from 1620s. Related: Provocatively; provocativeness. The earliest appearance of the word in English is as a noun meaning "an aphrodisiac" (early 15c.).
provoke (v.) Look up provoke at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French provoker, provochier (12c., Modern French provoquer) and directly from Latin provocare "call forth, challenge," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + vocare "to call" (see voice (n.)). Related: Provoked; provoking.
provoking (adj.) Look up provoking at Dictionary.com
1520s, "that incites or instigates," present participle adjective from provoke. Meaning "irritating, frustrating" is attested from 1640s. Related: Provokingly.
provolone (n.) Look up provolone at Dictionary.com
1946, from Italian, augmentative of provola "cheese made from buffalo milk," from Medieval Latin probula, of uncertain origin.
Il nome non ha una derivazione precisa. L'etimologia, secondo alcuni, fa pensare alla parola napoletana prova-provola con cui in Campania viene indicato il classico latticino di bufala a pasta filata, da consumarsi fresco. ["Dieta Mediterranea"]
provost (n.) Look up provost at Dictionary.com
Old English profost, reinforced by Old French cognate provost, both from Late Latin propositus (reinforced by Old French cognate provost), from Latin propositus/praepositus "a chief, prefect" (source of Old Provençal probost, Old High German probost, German Propst), literally "placed before, in charge of," from past participle of praeponere "put before" (see preposition). Provost marshal first recorded 1510s.
prow (n.) Look up prow at Dictionary.com
"forepart of a ship," 1550s, from Middle French proue, from Italian (Genoese) prua, from Vulgar Latin *proda, by dissimilation from Latin prora "prow," from Greek proira, related to pro "before, forward," proi "early in the morning," from PIE *pre-, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).

Middle English and early Modern English (and Scott) had prore in same sense, from Latin. Modern Italian has proda only in sense "shore, bank." Prow and poop meant "the whole ship," hence 16c.-17c. figurative use of the expression for "the whole" (of anything).
prowess (n.) Look up prowess at Dictionary.com
late 13c., prouesse, from Old French proece "prowess, courage, brave deed" (Modern French prouesse), from prou, later variant of prud "brave, valiant," from Vulgar Latin *prodem (source also of Spanish proeza, Italian prodezza; see proud). Prow was in Middle English as a noun meaning "advantage, profit," also as a related adjective ("valiant, brave"), but it has become obsolete. "In 15-17th c. often a monosyllable" [OED].
prowl (v.) Look up prowl at Dictionary.com
late 14c., prollen, "move about in search of something," of unknown origin, with no known cognates. Spelling with -w- is from 1500s (compare bowls), but pronounced "prôll" till late 18c. Meaning "go stealthily in search of prey" is first recorded 1580s. Related: Prowled; prowling. The noun, in on the prowl, is attested from 1803.