parodist (n.)
1742, from French parodiste (18c.), from parodie (see parody (n.)).
parody (n.)
1590s (first recorded use in English is in Ben Jonson), from or in imitation of Latin parodia "parody," from Greek paroidia "burlesque song or poem," from para- "beside, parallel to" (see para- (1), in this case, "mock-") + oide "song, ode" (see ode). The meaning "poor or feeble imitation" is from 1830. Related: Parodic; parodical.
parody (v.)
c.1745, from parody (n.). Related: Parodied; parodying.
parol (n.)
"oral statement," late 15c., from Anglo-French (14c.), from Old French parole "word, speech, argument" (see parole (n.)).
parole (n.)
1610s, "word of honor," especially "promise by a prisoner of war not to escape," from French parole "word, speech" (in parole d'honneur "word of honor") from Vulgar Latin *paraula "speech, discourse," from Latin parabola (see parable). Sense of "conditional release of a prisoner before full term" is first attested 1908 in criminal slang.
parole (v.)
1716, from parole (n.). Originally it was what the prisoner did ("pledge"); its transitive meaning "put on parole" is first attested 1782. Related: Paroled; paroling.
parolee (n.)
1916, from parole (v.) + -ee.
paronomasia (n.)
"pun," 1570s, from Latin, from Greek paronomasia "play upon words which sound similarly," from paronomazein "to alter slightly, to call with slight change of name," literally "to name beside," from par- (see para- (1)) + onomasia "naming," from onoma "name" (see name (n.)).
paronychia (n.)
inflammation beside a fingernail, 1590s, from Latin, from Greek paronykhia "whitlow," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + onyx "nail" (see nail (n.)).
paronym (n.)
"cognate word," 1846, from Greek paronymos, "formed by a slight change," from para- (see para- (1)) + onyma (see name (n.)). Related: Paronymous (1660s).
parotid (adj.)
"situated near the ear," 1680s, from French parotide (1540s), or directly from Latin parotid-, stem of parotis, from Greek parotis "tumor near the ear," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + ot-, stem of ous "ear" (see ear (n.1)). As a noun, "the parotid gland."
Parousia (n.)
"Second Coming," a reference to Matt. xxiv:27, 1875, from Greek parousia, literally "presence," from para- (see para- (1)) + ousia "essence," from on, genitive ontos, present participle of einai "to be" (see ion).
paroxysm (n.)
"sudden attack, convulsion," early 15c., from Middle French paroxysme (16c.), earlier paroxime (13c.), from Medieval Latin paroxysmus "irritation, fit of a disease," from Greek paroxysmos "irritation, exasperation," from paroxynein "to irritate, goad, provoke," from para- "beyond" (see para- (1)) + oxynein "sharpen, goad," from oxys "sharp, pointed" (see acrid). Non-medical sense first attested c.1600. Related: Paroxysmal.
parquet (n.)
1816, "patterned wooden flooring," from French parquet "wooden flooring; enclosed portion of a park," from Old French parchet (14c.) "small compartment, part of a park or theater," diminutive of parc (see park (n.)).

Meaning "part of a theater auditorium at the front of the ground floor" is first recorded 1848. The noun use in English has been influenced by the verb (attested from 1640s, from French parqueter. Related: Parquetry
parr (n.)
"young salmon," c.1720, Scottish, of unknown origin.
parrel (n.)
late 15c., "binding that fixes a yard to a mast," from parel "equipment" (c.1400), earlier "apparel" (early 14c.), a shortening of apparel (n.).
parricide (n.)
1. "person who kills a parent or near relative" (1550s), also 2. "act of killing parent or near relative" (1560s), both from Middle French parricide (13c. in sense 1, 16c. in sense 2), from 1. Latin parricida, 2. Latin parricidium, probably from parus "relative" (of uncertain origin, but compare Greek paos, peos "relation," Sanskrit purushah "man") + 1. cida "killer," 2. cidium "killing," both from caedere (see -cide).
parrot (n.)
1520s, of uncertain origin, perhaps from dialectal Middle French perrot, from a variant of Pierre "Peter;" or perhaps a dialectal form of perroquet (see parakeet). Replaced earlier popinjay. The German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt in South America in 1800 encountered a very old parrot that was the sole speaker of a dead Indian language, the original tribe having gone extinct.
parrot (v.)
"repeat without understanding," 1590s, from parrot (n.). Related: Parroted; parroting.
parrot-fish (n.)
1712, from parrot (n.) + fish (n.).
parry (v.)
1630s, from French parez! (which commonly would have been heard in fencing lessons), imperative of parer "ward off," from Italian parare "to ward or defend a blow" (see para- (2)). Related: Parried; parrying. Non-fencing use is from 1718. The noun is 1705, from the verb.
parse (v.)
1550s, "to state the parts of speech in a sentence," verb use of Middle English pars (n.) "part of speech" (c.1300), from Old French pars, plural of part "part," from Latin pars (see part (n.)) in school question, Quae pars orationis? "What part of speech?" Transferred (non-grammatical) use is from 1788. Pars was a common plural of part (n.) in early Middle English. Related: Parsed; parsing.
parsec (n.)
interstellar distance measure, 1913, from first elements of parallax second. It is the distance at which an object has parallax (viewed from Earth) of one second of arc, or about 3.26 light-years.
Parsee (n.)
1610s, descendant of Zoroastrians who fled to India 7c.-8c. after Muslim conquest of Persia, from Old Persian parsi "Persian" (see Persian). In Middle English, Parsees meant "Persians."
parsimonious (adj.)
1590s, from Latin parsimonia "frugality, thrift" (see parsimony) + -ous. Not originally with the suggestion of stinginess. Related: Parsimoniously; parsimoniousness.
parsimony (n.)
early 15c., from Latin parsimonia "sparingness, frugality, thrift," from pars-, past participle stem of parsi, perfect tense of parcere "to spare, save, refrain from, use moderately" (which is said to be unrelated to Latin parvus "small," parum "too little") + -monia, suffix signifying action, state, or condition.
parsley (n.)
14c. merger of Old English petersilie and Old French peresil (13c., Modern French persil), both from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum, from Greek petroselinon "rock-parsley," from petros "rock, stone" + selinon "celery" (see celery).
parsnip (n.)
16c., parsnepe, corruption (by influence of Middle English nepe "turnip;" see neep) of Middle English passenep (late 14c.), from Old French pasnaise "parsnip," also "male member" (Modern French panais), from Latin pastinaca "parsnip, carrot," from pastinum "two-pronged fork" (related to pastinare "to dig up the ground"); so called from the shape of the root. The parsnip was considered a kind of turnip.
parson (n.)
late 12c., from Anglo-French and Old French persone "curate, parson, holder of Church office" (12c.), from Medieval Latin persona "parson" (see person). Ecclesiastical use is obscure; it might refer to the "person" legally holding church property, or it may be an abbreviation of persona ecclesiae "person of the church."
parsonage (n.)
"house for a parson," late 15c., from parson + -age. Earlier it meant "benefice of a parson" (late 14c.).
part (n.)
mid-13c., "division, portion of a whole," from Old French part "share, portion; character; power, dominion; side, way, path," from Latin partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction; a part of the body; a fraction; a function, office," related to portio "share, portion," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to assign, grant, allot" (reciprocally, "to get in return;" cognates: Greek peprotai "it has been granted," Sanskrit purtam "reward," Hittite parshiya- "fraction, part").

It has replaced native deal (n.) in most senses. Theatrical sense (late 15c.) is from an actor's "share" in a performance (The Latin plural partis was used in the same sense). Meaning "the parting of the hair" is 1890, American English.

As an adjective from 1590s. Late Old English part "part of speech" did not survive and the modern word is considered a separate borrowing. Phrase for the most part is from late 14c. To take part "participate" is from late 14c.
part (v.)
c.1200, "to divide into parts; separate oneself," from Old French partir "to divide, separate" (10c.), from Latin partire, partere "to share, part, distribute, divide," from pars (see part (n.)).

Sense of "to separate (someone from someone else)" is from early 14c.; that of "to take leave" is from early 15c. Meaning "to separate the hair" is attested from 1610s. Related: Parted; parting. To part with "surrender" is from c.1300.
part of speech (n.)
c.1500, translating Latin pars orationis (see parse). Noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Sometimes article and participle are counted among them.
part-time (adj.)
also parttime, 1891, from part (n.) + time (n.). Related: Part-timer.
partake (v.)
1560s, back-formation from Middle English part-taking (late 14c.), or part-taker (c.1400), both translations of Latin particeps "participant" (n.), also "sharing, partaking" (see participation). Related: Partook; partaking.
partaker (n.)
c.1400, from part (n.) + agent noun from take (v.); see partake.
parterre (n.)
1630s, from French parterre (1540s), from adverbial phrase par terre "over the ground;" see par + terrain
parthenic (adj.)
"of or of the nature of a virgin," 1866, from Greek parthenikos, from parthenos "virgin" (see Parthenon).
parthenogenesis (n.)
"reproduction without fertilization," 1849, from Greek parthenos "virgin," of unknown origin, + genesis (see genesis). Related: Parthenogenetic.
Parthenon (n.)
name of the temple of Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greek, literally "temple of the virgin goddess" (Athene), from parthenos "virgin, maiden, girl," of unknown origin.
Parthian (n.)
1520s, native or inhabitant of Parthia (ancient kingdom northeast of Persia in western Asia), from Old Persian Parthava- "Parthian," dialectal variant of the stem Parsa-, source of Persia.

As an adjective, 1580s. Phrase Parthian shot is in reference to their horsemen, who were expert at racing forward, turning, and shooting arrows backward at the moment of retreat. The exact phrase is attested by 1832; the image itself was in use long before (for example Parthian fight, 1630s).
Or, like the Parthian, I shall flying fight ["Cymbeline," Act I, Scene VII]
parti-
"in two ways," word-forming element extracted late 16c. from parti-colored.
parti-colored (adj.)
1530s, from party "divided," from French parti, past participle of partir "to divide" (see part (v.)). The noun parti itself occurs in the sense "parti-colored" from late 14c.
partial (adj.)
early 15c., "one-sided, biased," from Old French parcial (14c., Modern French partial), from Medieval Latin partialis "divisible, solitary, partial," from Latin pars (genitive partis) "part" (see part (n.)). Sense of "not whole, incomplete" is attested from late 14c. Related: Partially (mid-15c. as "incompletely").
partiality (n.)
"one-sidedness," early 15c., from Middle French parcialité, from Medieval Latin partialitatem (nominative partialitas), from partialis (see partial).
partialness (n.)
"incompleteness," 1701, from partial + -ness.
participant (adj.)
1540s, from Latin participantem (nominative participans), present participle of participare "to share in, partake of," from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation).
participant (n.)
1560s, from Middle French participant, from Latin participantem (nominative participans), present participle of participare "to share in, partake of" from particeps "sharing, partaking" (see participation).
participate (v.)
1530s, back-formation from participation, or else from Latin participatus, past participle of participare "to share, share in, participate in; to impart," from particeps "partaking, sharing," from parti, past participle of partir "to divide" (see part (n.)) + -cip-, weak form of stem of capere "to take" (see capable). Related: Participated; participating.
participation (n.)
late 14c., from Old French participacion (13c.) and directly from Late Latin participationem (nominative participatio) "partaking," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin participare "participate in, share in, partake of; to make partaker, to share, impart," from particeps (genitive participis) "partaker, comrade, fellow soldier," also, as an adjective, "sharing, partaking," from pars (genitive partis) "part" (see part (n.)) + -cip-, weak form of stem of capere "to take" (see capable).