reconveyance (n.) Look up reconveyance at
1714; see re- + conveyance.
record (n.) Look up record at
c. 1300, "testimony committed to writing," from Old French record "memory, statement, report," from recorder "to record" (see record (v.)). Meaning "written account of some event" is from late 14c. Meaning "disk on which sounds or images have been recorded" is first attested 1878. That of "best or highest recorded achievement in sports, etc." is from 1883. Phrase on the record is from 1900; adverbial phrase off the record "confidentially" is attested from 1906. Record-player attested from 1919.
record (v.) Look up record at
c. 1200, "to repeat, reiterate, recite; rehearse, get by heart," from Old French recorder "tell, relate, repeat, recite, report, make known" (12c.) and directly from Latin recordari "remember, call to mind, think over, be mindful of," from re- "restore" (see re-) + cor (genitive cordis) "heart" (as the metaphoric seat of memory, as in learn by heart), from PIE root *kerd- "heart." Meaning "set down in writing" first attested mid-14c.; that of "put sound or pictures on disks, tape, etc." is from 1892. Related: Recorded; recording.
record-keeping (n.) Look up record-keeping at
also recordkeeping, 1841; see record (n.) + keeping, verbal noun from keep (v.).
recordation (n.) Look up recordation at
late 14c., "faculty of remembering," Old French recordacion "record, memory" (14c.) or directly from Latin recordationem (nominative recordatio), noun of action from past participle stem of recordari (see record (v.)). Meaning "act or process of committing to writing" is c. 1810.
recorder (n.) Look up recorder at
"chief legal officer of a city," early 15c., from Anglo-French recordour (early 14c.), Old French recordeor "witness; storyteller; minstrel," from Medieval Latin recordator, from Latin recordari "remember" (see record (v.)).

Meaning "registering apparatus" is from 1873. The musical instrument is attested by this name from early 15c., from record (v.) in the obsolete sense of "practice a tune." Used by Shakespeare and Milton ("of flutes and soft recorders," "Paradise Lost"). The name, and the device, were rarely heard by mid-1800s, ousted by the flute, but enjoyed a revival after 1911 as an easy-to-play instrument for musical beginners.
recount (v.1) Look up recount at
"to tell," mid-15c., also recompt, from Old North French and Anglo-French reconter (12c., Modern French raconter), from Old French re- "again" (see re-) + conter "to relate, reckon" (see count (v.)). Related: Recounted; recounting.
recount (n.) Look up recount at
also re-count, "a new count" (especially in an election), 1855, American English, from re- + count (n.2).
recount (v.2) Look up recount at
also re-count, "to enumerate again," 1764, from re- + count (v.). Related: Recounted; recounting.
recoup (v.) Look up recoup at
1620s, from French recouper "to cut back" (12c.), from Old French re- "back" (see re-) + couper "to cut," from coup "a blow" (see coup). Originally a legal term meaning "to deduct;" sense of "to recompense for loss or expense" first recorded 1660s. Related: Recouped; recouping.
recourse (n.) Look up recourse at
late 14c., from Old French recours (13c.), from Latin recursus "a return, a retreat," literally "a running back, a going back," from stem of past participle of recurrere "run back, return," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + currere "to run" (from PIE root *kers- "to run")
recover (v.) Look up recover at
c. 1300, "to regain consciousness," from Anglo-French rekeverer (13c.), Old French recovrer "come back, return; regain health; procure, get again" (11c.), from Medieval Latin recuperare "to recover" (source of Spanish recobrar, Italian ricoverare; see recuperation). Meaning "to regain health or strength" is from early 14c.; sense of "to get (anything) back" is first attested mid-14c. Related: Recovered; recovering.
recoverable (adj.) Look up recoverable at
late 15c., from Old French recouvrable, from recouvrer (see recover) .
recovery (n.) Look up recovery at
mid-14c., "return to health," from Anglo-French recoverie (c. 1300), Old French recovree "remedy, cure, recovery," from past participle stem of recovrer (see recover). Meaning "a gaining possession by legal action" is from early 15c. That of "act of righting oneself after a blunder, mishap, etc." is from 1520s.
recreant (adj.) Look up recreant at
c. 1300, "confessing oneself to be overcome or vanquished," from Old French recreant "defeated, vanquished, yielding, giving; weak, exhausted; cowardly," present participle adjective from recroire "to yield in a trial by combat, surrender allegiance," literally "believe again;" perhaps on notion of "take back one's pledge, yield one's cause," from re- "again, back" (see re-) + croire "entrust, believe," from Latin credere (see credo).
Non sufficit ... nisi dicat illud verbum odiosum, quod recreantus sit. [Bracton, c. 1260]
Meaning "cowardly" in English is from late 14c. Meaning "unfaithful to duty" is from 1640s.
recreant (n.) Look up recreant at
"one who yields in combat, one who begs for mercy, one who admits defeat," early 15c., hence "coward, faint-hearted wretch;" from recreant (adj.) and from Old French recreant as a noun, "one who acknowledges defeat, a craven, coward, renegade, traitor, wretch." In English, sense of "apostate, deserter, villain" is from 1560s.
recreate (v.) Look up recreate at
also re-create, "to create anew," 1580s, from re- "back, again" + create. Related: Recreated; recreating; recreation.
recreation (n.) Look up recreation at
late 14c., "refreshment or curing of a person, refreshment by eating," from Old French recreacion (13c.), from Latin recreationem (nominative recreatio) "recovery from illness," noun of action from past participle stem of recreare "to refresh, restore, make anew, revive, invigorate," from re- "again" (see re-) + creare (see create). Meaning "refresh oneself by some amusement" is first recorded c. 1400.

A verb recreate "to refresh by physical influence after exertion" is attested from early 15c. and was used by Lyly, Pope, Steele, and Harriet Martineau, but it did not take, probably to avoid confusion with recreate.
recreational (adj.) Look up recreational at
1650s, from recreation + -al (1). Related: Recreationally. Recreational drug attested from 1967.
recrement (n.) Look up recrement at
"dross, scum," 1590s, from French récrément (mid-16c.) or directly from Latin recrementum, from re- (see re-) + cernere "to sift, separate" (from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish").
recriminate (v.) Look up recriminate at
"return one accusation with another," c. 1600, from Medieval Latin recriminatus, past participle of recriminari "to make charges against," from Latin re- "back, again" (see re-) + criminari "to accuse," from crimen (genitive criminis) "a charge" (see crime). Related: Recriminated; recriminating.
recrimination (n.) Look up recrimination at
1610s, from French récrimination, from Medieval Latin recriminationem (nominative recriminatio), noun of action from past participle stem of recriminari (see recriminate).
recrudesce (v.) Look up recrudesce at
1875, "break out afresh," back-formation from recrudescence or else from Latin recrudescere "become raw again, break open afresh." Related: Recrudesced; recrudescing.
recrudescence (n.) Look up recrudescence at
1707, "a becoming raw again, a breaking out afresh," from stem of Latin recrudescere "re-open" (of wounds), literally "become raw again," from re- "again" (see re-) + crudescere, from crudus "raw" (see crude (adj.)) + inchoative suffix -escere. Meaning "revival" is from 1906. Related: Recrudescency (1650s); recrudescent (1726).
recruit (v.) Look up recruit at
1630s, "to strengthen, reinforce," from French recruter (17c.), from recrute "a levy, a recruit" (see recruit (n.)). Sense of "to enlist new soldiers" is attested from 1650s; of student athletes, from 1913. Related: Recruited; recruiting.
recruit (n.) Look up recruit at
"military reinforcement, one of a newly raised body of troops," 1640s, from recruit (v.), replacing earlier recrew, recrue; or from obsolete French recrute, alteration of recreue "a supply," recrue "a levy of troops" (late 16c.), Picardy or Hainault dialect variant of recrue "a levy, a recruit," literally "new growth," from Old French recreu (12c.), past participle of recreistre "grow or increase again," from re- "again" (see re-) + creistre "to grow," from Latin crescere "to grow" (see crescent). "The French word first appeared in literary use in gazettes published in Holland, and was disapproved of by French writers in the latter part of the 17th c." [OED]. The French word also is the source of Dutch recruut, German Recrut, Swedish rekryt.
recruiter (n.) Look up recruiter at
1690s, agent noun from recruit (v.).
recruitment (n.) Look up recruitment at
1795, from recruit (v.) + -ment.
recrystallization (n.) Look up recrystallization at
1782, from re- + crystallization.
recrystallize (v.) Look up recrystallize at
also re-crystallize, 1774, from re- + crystallize. Related: Recrystallized; recrystallizing.
rectal (adj.) Look up rectal at
1822, from stem of rectum + -al (1). Related: Rectally.
rectangle (n.) Look up rectangle at
1570s, from Middle French rectangle (16c.) and directly from Late Latin rectangulum, from rect-, comb. form of Latin rectus "right" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line") + Old French angle (see angle (n.)). Medieval Latin rectangulum meant "a triangle having a right angle."
rectangular (adj.) Look up rectangular at
1620s, from Middle French rectangulaire (16c.) or formed in English from Latin stem of rectangle + -ar. Related: Rectangularity.
rectification (n.) Look up rectification at
c. 1400, from Old French rectificacion (14c.) or directly from Late Latin rectificationem (nominative rectificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of rectificare (see rectify).
rectifier (n.) Look up rectifier at
1610s, agent noun from rectify.
rectify (v.) Look up rectify at
c. 1400, from Old French rectifier, literally "to make straight" (14c.), from Late Latin rectificare "make right," from Latin rectus "straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line") + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Rectified; rectifying.
rectilinear (adj.) Look up rectilinear at
"forming a straight line," 1650s, with -ar + rectiline (1560s), from Late Latin rectilineus, from rectus "straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line") + linea "line" (see line (n.)). Related: Rectilineal (1640s).
rectitude (n.) Look up rectitude at
early 15c., "quality of being straight," from Middle French rectitude (14c.), from Late Latin rectitudinem (nominative rectitudo) "straightness, uprightness," from Latin rectus "straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line"). Sense of "upright in conduct or character" is from 1530s.
recto (n.) Look up recto at
"right-hand page in an open book" (opposed to verso or reverso), 1824, from Latin recto (in recto folio), ablative of rectum "right" (see right (adj.2)).
recto- Look up recto- at
word-forming element meaning "pertaining to or involving the rectum," before vowels rect-, from comb. form of rectum.
rector (n.) Look up rector at
late 14c. (early 13c. in Anglo-Latin), from Latin rector "ruler, governor, director, guide," from rect-, past participle stem of regere "to rule, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Used originally of Roman governors and God, by 18c. generally restricted to clergymen and college heads. Related: Rectorship.
rectory (n.) Look up rectory at
mid-15c., from French rectorie (14c.) or Medieval Latin rectoria, from rector (see rector). Originally "benefice held by a rector;" of his residence, from 1849.
rectum (n.) Look up rectum at
early 15c., from Latin intestinum rectum "straight intestine," in contrast to the convolution of the rest of the bowels, from neuter past participle of regere "to keep straight" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line"). A loan-translation of Greek apeuthysmeon enteron, "the name given to the lowest part of the large intestine by Galen, who so called it because he dissected only animals whose rectum (in contradistinction to that of man) is really straight" [Klein].
recumbent (adj.) Look up recumbent at
1705, from Latin recumbentem (nominative recumbens), present participle of recumbere "recline, lie down, lie down again;" of things, "to fall, sink down, settle down," from re- "back" (see re-) + -cumbere "to lie down" (see succumb). Related: Recumbency (1640s). A verb, recumb, has been attempted in English occasionally since 1670s.
recuperate (v.) Look up recuperate at
1540s, from Latin recuperatus, past participle of recuperare "to get again," in Medieval Latin "revive, convalesce, recover" (see recuperation). Meaning "to recover from sickness or loss" is from 1864. Related: Recuperated; recuperating.
recuperation (n.) Look up recuperation at
late 15c., "recovery or regaining of things," from Latin recuperationem (nominative recuperatio) "a getting back, regaining, recovery," noun of action from past participle stem of recuperare "get back, regain, get again," in Medieval Latin "revive, convalesce, recover," related to recipere (see receive). Meaning "restoration to health or vigor" is from 1865.
recur (v.) Look up recur at
late 14c., "recover from illness or suffering;" mid-15c., "to return" (to a place), from Latin recurrere "to return, run back, hasten back," figuratively "revert, recur," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + currere "to run" (from PIE root *kers- "to run"). Originally of persons; application to thoughts, ideas, etc. is recorded from 1620s. Meaning "happen again" is from 1670s. Related: Recurred; recurring.
recurrence (n.) Look up recurrence at
1640s, from recurrent + -ence. Related: Recurrency (1610s).
recurrent (adj.) Look up recurrent at
1610s, from Middle French recurrent (16c.) and directly from Latin recurrentem (nominative recurrens), present participle of recurrere "run back, hasten back, return" (see recur). From 1590s as a noun ("recurrent muscle").
recurring (adj.) Look up recurring at
1711, present participle adjective from recur.