reprieve (n.) Look up reprieve at
1590s, from reprieve (v.).
reprimand (n.) Look up reprimand at
1630s, from French réprimande (16c.), from Middle French reprimende "reproof," from Latin reprimenda "that is to be repressed" (as in reprimenda culpa "fault to be checked"), fem. singular of reprimendus, gerundive of reprimere "reprove" (see repress). Spelling influenced in French by mander "to summon."
reprimand (v.) Look up reprimand at
1680s, from reprimand (n.) or else from French réprimander (17c.), from réprimande. Related: Reprimanded; reprimanding.
reprint (v.) Look up reprint at
1550s, from re- "back, again" + print (v.). Related: Reprinted; reprinting.
reprint (n.) Look up reprint at
1610s, from reprint (v.).
reprisal (n.) Look up reprisal at
early 15c., "seizing property or citizens of another nation in retaliation for loss inflicted on one's own," from Anglo-French reprisaille (14c.), from Old French reprisaille (Modern French représaille), from early Italian ripresaglia, from ripreso, past participle of riprendere "take back," from Latin reprendere, earlier reprehendere (see reprehend). General sense of "retaliation" is from 1710.
reprise (n.) Look up reprise at
late 14c., "yearly deduction from charges upon a manor or estate," from Old French reprise "act of taking back" (13c.), fem. of repris, past participle of reprendre "take back," from Latin reprendere, earlier reprehendere, earlier reprehendere (see reprehend). Meaning "resumption of an action" is from 1680s. Musical sense is from 1879.
reprise (n.) Look up reprise at
early 15c., from Old French repris, past participle of reprendre (see reprise (v.)).
repro Look up repro at
1946 as a shortening of reproduction.
reproach (v.) Look up reproach at
mid-14c., reprochen "to rebuke, reproach," from Anglo-French repruchier, Old French reprochier "upbraid, blame, accuse, speak ill of," from reproche (see reproach (n.)). Related: Reproached; reproaching.
reproach (n.) Look up reproach at
mid-14c., "a rebuke, blame, censure;" also "object of scorn or contempt;" c. 1400, as "disgrace, state of disgrace," from Old French reproche "blame, shame, disgrace" (12c.), from reprochier "to blame, bring up against," said by some French etymologists to be from Vulgar Latin *repropiare, from Latin re- "opposite of" + prope "near" (see propinquity), with suggestions of "bring near to" as in modern "get in (someone's) face." But others would have it from *reprobicare, from Latin reprobus/reprobare (see reprobate (adj.)).
reproachful (adj.) Look up reproachful at
1540s, "expressing reproach," also "worthy of reproach," from reproach + -ful. Related: Reproachfully; reproachfulness.
reprobate (adj.) Look up reprobate at
early 15c., "rejected as worthless," from Late Latin reprobatus, past participle of reprobare "disapprove, reject, condemn," from Latin re- "opposite of, reversal of previous condition" (see re-) + probare "prove to be worthy" (see probate (n.)). Earliest form of the word in English was a verb, meaning "to disapprove" (early 15c.).
reprobate (n.) Look up reprobate at
1540s, "one rejected by God," from reprobate (adj.). Sense of "abandoned or unprincipled person" is from 1590s.
reprobation (n.) Look up reprobation at
c. 1400, from Late Latin reprobationem (nominative reprobatio), noun of action from past participle stem of reprobare (see reprobate (adj.)).
reprocess (v.) Look up reprocess at
1939, from re- "back, again" + process (v.). Related: Reprocessed; reprocessing.
reproduce (v.) Look up reproduce at
1610s, "to produce again," from re- "again" + produce (v.), probably on model of French reproduire (16c.). Sense of "make a copy" is first recorded 1850; that of "produce offspring" is from 1894. Related: Reproduced; reproducing.
reproduceable (adj.) Look up reproduceable at
1825, from reproduce + -able. Alternative form reproductable attested from 1834.
reproductible (adj.) Look up reproductible at
1834; see reproduction + -able.
reproduction (n.) Look up reproduction at
1650s, "act of forming again," noun of action from reproduce. Of generation of living things, from 1782; of sounds, from 1908. Meaning "a copy" is from 1807.
reproductive (adj.) Look up reproductive at
1753; see reproduce + -ive. In U.S., reproductive rights attested from 1970.
reprogram (v.) Look up reprogram at
also reprogramme, 1945, from re- "back, again" + program (v.). Related: Reprogrammed; reprogramming.
reproof (n.) Look up reproof at
mid-14c., "a shame, a disgrace," also "a censure, a rebuke," from Old French reprove "reproach, rejection," verbal noun from reprover "to blame, accuse" (see reprove).
reprove (v.) Look up reprove at
c. 1300, from Old French reprover "accuse, blame" (12c.), from Late Latin reprobare "disapprove, reject, condemn" (see reprobate). Related: Reproved; reproving.
reptile (n.) Look up reptile at
late 14c., "creeping or crawling animal," from Old French reptile (early 14c.) and directly from Late Latin reptile, noun use of neuter of reptilis (adj.) "creping, crawling," from rept-, past participle stem of repere "to crawl, creep," from PIE root *rep- "to creep, crawl" (source also of Lithuanian replioju "to creep"). Used of persons of low character from 1749.

Precise scientific use began to develop mid-18c., but the word was used as well at first of animals now known as amphibians, including toads, frogs, salamanders; separation of Reptilia (1835 as a distinct class) and Amphibia took place early 19c.; popular use lagged, and reptile still was used late 18c. with sense "An animal that creeps upon many feet" [Johnson, who calls the scorpion a reptile], sometimes excluding serpents.
And the terrestrial animals may be divided into quadrupeds or beasts, reptiles, which have many feet, and serpents, which have no feet at all. [Locke, "Elements of Natural Philosophy," 1689]

An inadvertent step may crush the snail
That crawls at ev'ning in the public path ;
But he that has humanity, forewarn'd,
Will tread aside, and let the reptile live.
[Cowper, "The Task," 1785]
The Old English word for "reptile" was slincend, related to slink.
Reptilia (n.) Look up Reptilia at
mid-17c., from Latin plural of reptile (see reptile; also see -a (2)).
reptilian (adj.) Look up reptilian at
1846, from reptile + -ian. Transferred meaning "malignant, cold, underhanded" is from 1859.
republic (n.) Look up republic at
c. 1600, "state in which supreme power rests in the people via elected representatives," from Middle French république (15c.), from Latin respublica (ablative republica) "the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic," literally res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public (adj.)). Republic of letters attested from 1702.
republican (adj.) Look up republican at
1712, "belonging to a republic, of the nature of a republic, consonant to the principles of a republic," from republic + -an. The French republican calendar was in use from Nov. 26, 1793 to Dec. 31, 1805.
republican (n.) Look up republican at
"one who favors a republic or republican principles" (or, as Johnson puts it, "One who thinks a commonwealth without monarchy the best government"), 1690s; see republican (adj.). With capital R-, in reference to a member of a specific U.S. political party (the Anti-Federalists) from 1782, though this was not the ancestor of the modern U.S. Republican Party, which dates from 1854.
republicanism (n.) Look up republicanism at
1680s, from republican (adj.) + -ism. In reference to the U.S. Republican Party from 1856.
republication (n.) Look up republication at
1730, from re- + publication.
Republicrat (n.) Look up Republicrat at
in U.S. political jargon, usually meaning "moderate; independent," 1881, from elements of the names of the two dominant parties; see republican (n.) and democrat (n.).
republish (v.) Look up republish at
1620s, from re- + publish. Related: Republished; republishing.
repudiate (v.) Look up repudiate at
1540s, "to cast off by divorce," from Latin repudiatus, past participle of repudiare "to cast off, put away, divorce, reject, scorn, disdain," from repudium "divorce, rejection, a putting away, dissolution of marriage," from re- "back, away" (see re-) + pudium, which is probably related to pes/ped- "foot" [Barnhart]. If this is so, the original notion may be of kicking something away, but folk etymology commonly connects it with pudere "cause shame to." Of opinions, conduct, etc., "to refuse to acknowledge," attested from 1824. Earliest in English as an adjective meaning "divorced, rejected, condemned" (mid-15c.). Related: Repudiated; repudiating.
repudiation (n.) Look up repudiation at
1540s, "divorce" (of a woman by a man), from Latin repudiationem (nominative repudiatio) "a rejection, refusal," noun of action from past participle stem of repudiare (see repudiate). Meaning "action of disowning" is from 1840s.
repudiatory (adj.) Look up repudiatory at
1820; see repudiate + -ory.
repugn (v.) Look up repugn at
late 14c., from Old French repugner, from Latin repugnare "fight against, resist" (see repugnant). Related: Repugned; repugning.
repugnance (n.) Look up repugnance at
late 14c., from Old French repugnance "opposition, resistance" (13c.) or directly from Latin repugnantia "incompatibility," from stem of repugnare "resist, disagree, be incompatible" (see repugnant).
repugnant (adj.) Look up repugnant at
late 14c., "contrary, contradictory," from Old French repugnant "contradictory, opposing" or directly from Latin repugnantem (nominative repugnans), present participle of repugnare "to resist, fight back, oppose; disagree, be incompatible," from re- "back" (see re-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Meaning "distasteful, objectionable" is from 1777.
repulse (v.) Look up repulse at
early 15c., from Latin repulsus, past participle of repellere "drive back, reject" (see repel). Related: Repulsed; repulsing.
repulse (n.) Look up repulse at
1530s, from Latin repulsa "refusal, denial," noun use of fem. past participle of repellere (see repel).
repulsion (n.) Look up repulsion at
early 15c., "repudiation," from Late Latin repulsionem (nominative repulsio) "a repelling," noun of action from past participle stem of repellere (see repel). Meaning "action of forcing or driving back" is attested from 1540s. Sense of "strong dislike" is from 1751.
repulsive (adj.) Look up repulsive at
early 15c., "able to repel," from Middle French repulsif (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin repulsivus, from repuls-, past participle stem of repellere (see repel). The sense of "causing disgust" is first recorded 1816. Related: Repulsively; repulsiveness.
repurchase (v.) Look up repurchase at
1590s, from re- + purchase (v.). Related: Repurchased; repurchasing.
repurpose (v.) Look up repurpose at
by 1983, from re- + purpose (v.). Related: Repurposed; repurposing.
reputable (adj.) Look up reputable at
1610s, from repute + -able. Meaning "having a good reputation" is from 1670s. Related: Reputably.
reputation (n.) Look up reputation at
mid-14c., "credit, good reputation," from Latin reputationem (nominative reputatio) "consideration, a thinking over," noun of action from past participle stem of reputare "reflect upon, reckon, count over," from re- "repeatedly" (see re-) + putare "to reckon, consider" (see putative).
repute (v.) Look up repute at
late 14c., from Middle French reputer (late 13c.) or directly from Latin reputare "to count over, reckon; think over" (see reputation). Related: Reputed; reputing.
repute (n.) Look up repute at
1550s, from repute (v.).