repressed (adj.)
1660s, past participle adjective from repress (v.). Psychological sense by 1904.
repression (n.)
late 14c., noun of action from repress (v.), or else from Medieval Latin repressionem (nominative repressio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin reprimere. Psychological sense is from 1908; biochemical sense is from 1957.
repressive (adj.)
early 15c., from Middle French repressif, from Latin repress-, past participle stem of reprimere (see repress). Related: Repressively.
reprieve (v.)
1570s, reprive, "take back to prison," alteration (perhaps by influence of reprove) of Middle English repryen "to remand, detain" (late 15c.), probably from Middle French repris, past participle of reprendre "take back" (see reprise). Meaning "to suspend an impending execution" is recorded from 1590s; this sense evolved because being sent back to prison was the alternative to being executed. Spelling with -ie- is from 1640s, perhaps by analogy of achieve, etc. Related: Reprieved; reprieving.
reprieve (n.)
1590s, from reprieve (v.).
reprimand (n.)
1630s, from French réprimande (16c.), from Middle French reprimende "reproof," from Latin reprimenda "that is to be repressed" (as in reprimenda culpa "fault to be checked"), fem. singular of reprimendus, gerundive of reprimere "reprove" (see repress). Spelling influenced in French by mander "to summon."
reprimand (v.)
1680s, from reprimand (n.) or else from French réprimander (17c.), from réprimande. Related: Reprimanded; reprimanding.
reprint (v.)
1550s, from re- "back, again" + print (v.). Related: Reprinted; reprinting.
reprint (n.)
1610s, from reprint (v.).
reprisal (n.)
early 15c., "seizing property or citizens of another nation in retaliation for loss inflicted on one's own," from Anglo-French reprisaille (14c.), from Old French reprisaille (Modern French représaille), from early Italian ripresaglia, from ripreso, past participle of riprendere "take back," from Latin reprendere, earlier reprehendere (see reprehend). General sense of "retaliation" is from 1710.
reprise (n.)
late 14c., "yearly deduction from charges upon a manor or estate," from Old French reprise "act of taking back" (13c.), fem. of repris, past participle of reprendre "take back," from Latin reprendere, earlier reprehendere, earlier reprehendere (see reprehend). Meaning "resumption of an action" is from 1680s. Musical sense is from 1879.
reprise (n.)
early 15c., from Old French repris, past participle of reprendre (see reprise (v.)).
repro
1946 as a shortening of reproduction.
reproach (n.)
mid-14c., "a rebuke, blame, censure;" also "object of scorn or contempt;" c.1400, as "disgrace, state of disgrace," from Old French reproche "blame, shame, disgrace" (12c.), from reprochier "to blame, bring up against," said by some French etymologists to be from Vulgar Latin *repropiare, from Latin re- "opposite of" + prope "near" (see propinquity), with suggestions of "bring near to" as in modern "get in (someone's) face." But others would have it from *reprobicare, from Latin reprobus/reprobare (see reprobate (adj.)).
reproach (v.)
mid-14c., reprochen "to rebuke, reproach," from Anglo-French repruchier, Old French reprochier "upbraid, blame, accuse, speak ill of," from reproche (see reproach (n.)). Related: Reproached; reproaching.
reproachful (adj.)
1540s, "expressing reproach," also "worthy of reproach," from reproach + -ful. Related: Reproachfully; reproachfulness.
reprobate (adj.)
early 15c., "rejected as worthless," from Late Latin reprobatus, past participle of reprobare "disapprove, reject, condemn," from Latin re- "opposite of, reversal of previous condition" (see re-) + probare "prove to be worthy" (see probate (n.)). Earliest form of the word in English was a verb, meaning "to disapprove" (early 15c.).
reprobate (n.)
1540s, "one rejected by God," from reprobate (adj.). Sense of "abandoned or unprincipled person" is from 1590s.
reprobation (n.)
c.1400, from Late Latin reprobationem (nominative reprobatio), noun of action from past participle stem of reprobare (see reprobate (adj.)).
reprocess (v.)
1939, from re- "back, again" + process (v.). Related: Reprocessed; reprocessing.
reproduce (v.)
1610s, "to produce again," from re- "again" + produce (v.), probably on model of French reproduire (16c.). Sense of "make a copy" is first recorded 1850; that of "produce offspring" is from 1894. Related: Reproduced; reproducing.
reproduceable (adj.)
1825, from reproduce + -able. Alternative form reproductable attested from 1834.
reproductible (adj.)
1834; see reproduction + -able.
reproduction (n.)
1650s, "act of forming again," noun of action from reproduce. Of generation of living things, from 1782; of sounds, from 1908. Meaning "a copy" is from 1807.
reproductive (adj.)
1753; see reproduce + -ive. In U.S., reproductive rights attested from 1970.
reprogram (v.)
also reprogramme, 1945, from re- "back, again" + program (v.). Related: Reprogrammed; reprogramming.
reproof (n.)
mid-14c., "a shame, a disgrace," also "a censure, a rebuke," from Old French reprove "reproach, rejection," verbal noun from reprover "to blame, accuse" (see reprove).
reprove (v.)
c.1300, from Old French reprover "accuse, blame" (12c.), from Late Latin reprobare "disapprove, reject, condemn" (see reprobate). Related: Reproved; reproving.
reptile (n.)
late 14c., "creeping or crawling animal," from Old French reptile (early 14c.) and directly from Late Latin reptile, noun use of neuter of reptilis (adj.) "creping, crawling," from rept-, past participle stem of repere "to crawl, creep," from PIE root *rep- "to creep, crawl" (cognates: Lithuanian replioju "to creep"). Used of persons of low character from 1749.

Precise scientific use began to develop mid-18c., but the word was used as well at first of animals now known as amphibians, including toads, frogs, salamanders; separation of Reptilia (1835 as a distinct class) and Amphibia took place early 19c.; popular use lagged, and reptile still was used late 18c. with sense "An animal that creeps upon many feet" [Johnson, who calls the scorpion a reptile], sometimes excluding serpents.
And the terrestrial animals may be divided into quadrupeds or beasts, reptiles, which have many feet, and serpents, which have no feet at all. [Locke, "Elements of Natural Philosophy," 1689]



An inadvertent step may crush the snail
That crawls at ev'ning in the public path ;
But he that has humanity, forewarn'd,
Will tread aside, and let the reptile live.
[Cowper, "The Task," 1785]
The Old English word for "reptile" was slincend, related to slink.
Reptilia (n.)
mid-17c., from Latin plural of reptile (see reptile).
reptilian (adj.)
1846, from reptile + -ian. Transferred meaning "malignant, cold, underhanded" is from 1859.
republic (n.)
c.1600, "state in which supreme power rests in the people via elected representatives," from Middle French république (15c.), from Latin respublica (ablative republica) "the common weal, a commonwealth, state, republic," literally res publica "public interest, the state," from res "affair, matter, thing" + publica, fem. of publicus "public" (see public (adj.)). Republic of letters attested from 1702.
republican (adj.)
1712, "belonging to a republic, of the nature of a republic, consonant to the principles of a republic," from republic + -an. The French republican calendar was in use from Nov. 26, 1793 to Dec. 31, 1805.
republican (n.)
"one who favors a republic or republican principles" (or, as Johnson puts it, "One who thinks a commonwealth without monarchy the best government"), 1690s; see from republican (adj.). With capital R-, in reference to a member of a specific U.S. political party (the Anti-Federalists) from 1782, though this was not the ancestor of the modern U.S. Republican Party, which dates from 1854.
republicanism (n.)
1680s, from republican (adj.) + -ism. In reference to the U.S. Republican Party from 1856.
republication (n.)
1730, from re- + publication.
Republicrat (n.)
in U.S. political jargon, usually meaning "moderate; independent," 1881, from elements of the names of the two dominant parties; see from republican (n.) and democrat (n.).
republish (v.)
1620s, from re- + publish. Related: Republished; republishing.
repudiate (v.)
1540s, "to cast off by divorce," from Latin repudiatus, past participle of repudiare "to cast off, put away, divorce, reject, scorn, disdain," from repudium "divorce, rejection, a putting away, dissolution of marriage," from re- "back, away" (see re-) + pudium, probably related to pes-/ped- "foot" [Barnhart]. If this is so, the original notion may be of kicking something away, but folk etymology commonly connects it with pudere "cause shame to." Of opinions, conduct, etc., "to refuse to acknowledge," attested from 1824. Earliest in English as an adjective meaning "divorced, rejected, condemned" (mid-15c.). Related: Repudiated; repudiating.
repudiation (n.)
1540s, "divorce" (of a woman by a man), from Latin repudiationem (nominative repudiatio) "a rejection, refusal," noun of action from past participle stem of repudiare (see repudiate). Meaning "action of disowning" is from 1840s.
repudiatory (adj.)
1820; see repudiate + -ory.
repugn (v.)
late 14c., from Old French repugner, from Latin repugnare "fight against, resist" (see repugnant). Related: Repugned; repugning.
repugnance (n.)
late 14c., from Old French repugnance "opposition, resistance" (13c.) or directly from Latin repugnantia "incompatibility," from stem of repugnare "resist, disagree, be incompatible" (see repugnant).
repugnant (adj.)
late 14c., "contrary, contradictory," from Old French repugnant "contradictory, opposing" or directly from Latin repugnantem (nominative repugnans), present participle of repugnare "to resist, fight back, oppose; disagree, be incompatible," from re- "back" (see re-) + pugnare "to fight" (see pugnacious). Meaning "distasteful, objectionable" is from 1777.
repulse (v.)
early 15c., from Latin repulsus, past participle of repellere "drive back, reject" (see repel). Related: Repulsed; repulsing.
repulse (n.)
1530s, from Latin repulsa "refusal, denial," noun use of fem. past participle of repellere (see repel).
repulsion (n.)
early 15c., "repudiation," from Late Latin repulsionem (nominative repulsio) "a repelling," noun of action from past participle stem of repellere (see repel). Meaning "action of forcing or driving back" is attested from 1540s. Sense of "strong dislike" is from 1751.
repulsive (adj.)
early 15c., "able to repel," from Middle French repulsif (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin repulsivus, from repuls-, past participle stem of repellere (see repel). The sense of "causing disgust" is first recorded 1816. Related: Repulsively; repulsiveness.
repurchase (v.)
1590s, from re- + purchase (v.). Related: Repurchased; repurchasing.
repurpose (v.)
by 1983, from re- + purpose (v.). Related: Repurposed; repurposing.