respiratory (adj.)
1660s, from Modern Latin respiratorius or French respiratoire; see respiration + -ory.
respire (v.)
late 14c., from Old French respirer (12c.), from Latin respirare "breathe again, breathe in and out," from re- "again" (see re-) + spirare "to breathe" (see spirit (n.)). Related: Respired; respiring.
respite (n.)
mid-13c., from Old French respit "delay, respect" (Modern French répit), from Latin respectus "consideration, recourse, regard," literally "act of looking back (or often) at one," noun use of past participle of respicere "look back at, regard, consider," from re- "back" (see re-) + specere "look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). A doublet of respect (n.).
resplendence (n.)
early 15c., from Late Latin resplendentia, from stem of Latin resplendens (see resplendent).
resplendent (adj.)
mid-15c., from Latin resplendentem (nominative resplendens) "brilliant, radiant," present participle of resplendere "to glitter, shine," from re-, intensive prefix, + splendere "to shine, be splendid" (see splendid). Related: Resplendently.
respond (v.)
c. 1300, respound, from Old French respondere "respond, correspond," from Latin respondere "respond, answer to, promise in return," from re- "back" (see re-) + spondere "to pledge" (see spondee). Modern spelling and pronunciation is from c. 1600. Related: Responded; responding.
respondent (n.)
1520s, "one who answers," from Latin respondentem (nominative respondens), present participle of respondere (see respond).
responder (n.)
1845 of devices, 1871 of persons, agent noun from respond (v.).
response (n.)
c. 1300, from Old French respons (Modern French réponse) and directly from Latin responsum "an answer," noun use of neuter past participle of respondere "to respond" (see respond).
responsibility (n.)
"condition of being responsible," 1787, from responsible + -ity. Meaning "that for which one is responsible" is from 1796. Related: Responsibilities.
responsible (adj.)
1590s, "answerable" (to another, for something), from obsolete French responsible (13c., Modern French responsable, as if from Latin *responsabilis), from Latin respons-, past participle stem of respondere "to respond" (see respond). Meaning "accountable for one's actions" is attested from 1640s; that of "reliable, trustworthy" is from 1690s. Retains the sense of "obligation" in the Latin root word. Related: Responsibly.
responsive (adj.)
early 15c., "making answer," from Middle French responsif and directly from Late Latin responsivus "answering," from Latin respons-, past participle stem of respondere (see respond). Meaning "responding to influence or action" is from 1762. Related: Responsively; responsiveness.
ressentiment (n.)
1943, a word from Nietzsche, from German ressentiment, from French ressentiment (see resentment). The French word also was borrowed as obsolete English resentiment (16c.) "feeling or sense (of something); state of being deeply affected by (something); resentment."
rest (v.1)
"repose, cease from action," Old English ræstan, restan "take repose by lying down; lie in death or in the grave; cease from motion, work, or performance; be without motion; be undisturbed, be free from what disquiets; stand or lie as upon a support or basis," from root of rest (n.1). Transitive senses "give repose to; lay or place, as on a support or basis" are from early 13c. Meaning "cease from, have intermission" is late 14c., also "rely on for support." Related: Rested; resting. Common Germanic, with cognates in Old Frisian resta, Dutch rusten, Old High German raston, German rasten, Swedish rasta, Danish raste "to rest." Resting place is from mid-14c.
rest (n.1)
"sleep," Old English ræste, reste "rest, bed, intermission of labor, mental peace," common Germanic (Old Saxon resta "resting place, burial-place," Dutch rust, Old High German rasta, German Rast "rest, peace, repose"), of uncertain origin.

Original sense seems to be a measure of distance (compare Old High German rasta, which in addition to "rest" meant "league of miles," Old Norse rost "league, distance after which one rests," Gothic rasta "mile, stage of a journey"), perhaps a word from the nomadic period. Unless the original sense is "repose," thence extended secondarily to "distance between two resting place."

The meaning "support, thing upon which something rests" is attested from 1580s. At rest "dead" is from mid-14c., on the notion of "last rest." Rest stop is from 1973. Colloquial expression to give (something) a rest "to stop talking about it" is first recorded 1927, American English.
rest (n.2)
"remainder, that which is left after a separation," early 15c., from Middle French reste "remnant," from rester "to remain" (see rest (v.2)). Meaning "others, those not included in a proposition" is from 1530s.
rest (v.2)
"to be left, remain," mid-15c., from Old French rester "to remain," from Latin restare "stand back, be left," from re- "back" (see re-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Partially confused and merged with the other verb rest. Sense of "to continue to be" is in rest assured. Transitive sense of "to keep, cause to continue to remain" was common in 16c.-17c., "used with a predicate adjective following and qualifying the object" [Century Dictionary], hence phrase rest you merry (1540s); God rest you merry, gentlemen, often is mis-punctuated.
restart (v.)
also re-start, 1845, from re- + start (v.). Related: Restarted; restarting. As a noun from 1881.
restate (v.)
also re-state, 1713, from re- + state (v.). Related: Restated; restating.
restatement (n.)
1785, from restate + -ment.
restaurant (n.)
1821, from French restaurant "a restaurant," originally "food that restores," noun use of present participle of restaurer "to restore or refresh," from Old French restorer (see restore).
In 1765 a man by the name of Boulanger, also known as "Champ d'Oiseaux" or "Chantoiseau," opened a shop near the Louvre (on either the rue des Poulies or the rue Bailleul, depending on which authority one chooses to believe). There he sold what he called restaurants or bouillons restaurants--that is, meat-based consommés intended to "restore" a person's strength. Ever since the Middle Ages the word restaurant had been used to describe any of a variety of rich bouillons made with chicken, beef, roots of one sort or another, onions, herbs, and, according to some recipes, spices, crystallized sugar, toasted bread, barley, butter, and even exotic ingredients such as dried rose petals, Damascus grapes, and amber. In order to entice customers into his shop, Boulanger had inscribed on his window a line from the Gospels: "Venite ad me omnes qui stomacho laboratis et ego vos restaurabo." He was not content simply to serve bouillon, however. He also served leg of lamb in white sauce, thereby infringing the monopoly of the caterers' guild. The guild filed suit, which to everyone's astonishment ended in a judgment in favor of Boulanger. [Jean-Robert Pitte, "The Rise of the Restaurant," in "Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present," English editor Albert Sonnenfeld, transl. Clarissa Botsford, 1999, Columbia University Press]
Italian spelling ristorante attested in English by 1925.
restaurateur (n.)
1796, from French restaurateur, agent noun from restaurer "to restore" (see restaurant) on model of Late Latin restaurator "restorer." Native form restauranter is recorded from 1877.
rested (adj.)
"refreshed by sleep," c. 1400, past participle adjective from rest (v.).
restful (adj.)
mid-14c., "characterized by rest;" late 14c., "quiet, peaceful;" from rest (n.1) + -ful. Related: Restfully; restfulness.
restitute (v.)
late 14c., from French restituer (14c.) or from Latin restitutus, past participle of restituere "restore, replace" (see restitution).
restitution (n.)
early 14c., from Old French restitucion or directly from Latin restitutionem (nominative restitutio) "a restoring," noun of action from past participle stem of restituere "set up again, restore, rebuild, replace, revive, reinstate, re-establish," from re- "again" (see re-) + statuere "to set up," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."
restive (adj.)
early 15c., restyffe "not moving forward," from Middle French restif "motionless, brought to a standstill" (Modern French rétif), from rester "to remain" (see rest (n.2)). Sense of "unmanageable" (1680s) evolved via notion of a horse refusing to go forward.
restless (adj.)
late 14c., from rest (n.1) + -less. A general Germanic compound (Frisian restleas, Dutch rusteloos, German rastlos, Danish rastlös). Meaning "stirring constantly, desirous of action" is attested from late 15c. Related: Restlessly; restlessness. Old English had restleas "deprived of sleep."
restock (v.)
also re-stock, 1670s, from re- + stock (v.). Related: Restocked; restocking.
restoration (n.)
late 14c., "a means of healing or restoring health; renewing of something lost," from Old French restoration (Modern French restauration) and directly from Late Latin restorationem (nominative restoratio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin restaurare (see restore).

Mid-15c. as "the repairing of a building;" c. 1500 as "a restoring to a former state." With a capital R-, in reference to the reestablishment of the English monarchy under Charles II in 1660, from 1718. As a period in English theater, attested from 1898. In French history, it refers to 1814. An earlier word in this sense was restauration (late 14c.), from French.
restorative (adj.)
late 14c., from Old French restoratif from restorer (see restore).
restorative (n.)
early 15c., from restorative (adj.), or from Medieval Latin restaurativum "a restorative."
restore (v.)
c. 1300, "to give back," also, "to build up again, repair," from Old French restorer, from Latin restaurare "repair, rebuild, renew," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + -staurare, as in instaurare "to set up, establish; renew, restore," from PIE *stau-ro-, from root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Related: Restored; restoring.
restrain (v.)
mid-14c., from stem of Old French restreindre "press, push together; curb, bridle; bandage" (12c.), from Latin restringere "draw back tightly, confine, check" (see restriction). Related: Restrained; restraining.
That which we restrain we keep within limits; that which we restrict we keep within certain definite limits; that which we repress we try to put out of existence. [Century Dictionary, 1902]
restrained (adj.)
"repressed, kept under control," 1570s, past participle adjective from restrain.
restraint (n.)
"action of restraining; means of restraint," early 15c., from Old French restreinte, noun use of fem. past participle of restraindre (see restrain). Sense of "reserve" is from c. 1600.
restrict (v.)
1530s, from Latin restrictus, past participle of restringere (see restriction). Regarded 18c. as a Scottishism. Related: Restricted; restricting.
restricted (adj.)
"limited," 1830, past participle adjective from restrict; of documents, etc., "secret, not for public release" it is recorded from 1944. In U.S., restricted was a euphemism for "off-limits to Jews" (1947).
Manager: "I'm sorry, Mr. Marx, but we can't let you use the pool; this country club is restricted."
Groucho: "Well, my daughter's only half-Jewish; could she go in up to her knees?" [there are many versions and variations of this story, dating back to 1970s]
restriction (n.)
early 15c., "that which restricts," from Middle French restriction (14c.) and directly from Late Latin restrictionem (nominative restrictio) "limitation," noun of action from past participle stem of Latin restringere "restrict, bind fast, restrain," from re- "back" (see re-) + stringere "draw tight" (see strain (v.)). Meaning "act of restricting" is from 1620s.
restrictive (adj.)
early 15c., "serving to bind or draw together," from Middle French restrictif, from Late Latin restrictivus, from Latin restrict-, past participle stem of restringere (see restriction). Meaning "imposing restriction" is from 1570s. Related: Restrictively; restrictiveness.
restring (v.)
1809, from re- + string (v.). Related: Restrung; restringing.
restroom (n.)
also rest-room, 1897, as a room with a toilet, from rest (n.1) + room (n.).
restructure (v.)
1951, from re- "back, again" + structure (v.). Related: Restructured; restructuring.
resubmission (n.)
1640s; see re- + submission.
resubmit (v.)
1831, from re- + submit. Related: Resubmitted; resubmitting.
result (n.)
1620s, "action of springing back;" 1640s, "outcome, effect," from result (v.). Related: Results. Mathematical sense from 1771.
result (v.)
early 15c., "occur as a result, arise as a consequence," from Medieval Latin resultare "to result," in classical Latin "to spring forward, rebound," frequentative of past participle of resilire "to rebound" (see resilience). Related: Resulted; resulting.
resultant (n.)
early 15c., from French résultant and directly from Medieval Latin resultantem (nominative resultans), present participle of resultare (see result (v.)).
resultant (adj.)
1630s, from resultant (adj.) and from Medieval Latin resultantem (nominative resultans), present participle of resultare (see result (v.)).
resume (v.)
early 15c., "to regain, take back;" mid-15c., "recommence, continue, begin again after interruption," from Middle French resumer (14c.) and directly from Latin resumere "take again, take up again, assume again," from re- "again" (see re-) + sumere "take up" (compare assume). Meaning "begin again" is mid-15c. Intransitive sense "proceed after interruption" is from 1802. Related: Resumed; resuming.