ring (v.2)
"make a circle around," Old English ymbhringan, from the root of ring (n.1). Intransitive sense "gather in a ring" is mid-15c. Sense of "provide or attach a ring" is late 14c. Meaning "move in a circle around" is from 1825. Related: Ringed; ringing. Compare Frisian ringje, Middle Dutch and Dutch ringen, Old High German ringan, German ringen, Old Norse hringa, hringja.
ring (n.2)
1540s, "set of church bells," from ring (v.1). Meaning "a call on the telephone" is from 1900; to give (someone) a ring "call on the telephone" was in use by 1910. Meaning "a ringing tone" is from 1620s; specifically "the ringing sound made by a telephone" by 1951. Meaning "resonance of coin or glass as a test of genuineness" is from 1850, with transferred use (ring of truth, etc.).
ring-road (n.)
1928, from ring (n.1) + road.
ringer (n.)
early 15c., "one who rings" (a bell), agent noun from ring (v.1). In quoits (and by extension, horseshoes) from 1863, from ring (v.2). Especially in be a dead ringer for "resemble closely," 1891, from ringer, a fast horse entered fraudulently in a race in place of a slow one (the verb to ring in this sense is attested from 1812), possibly from British ring in "substitute, exchange," via ring the changes, "substitute counterfeit money for good," a pun on ring the changes in the sense of play the regular series of variations in a peal of bells (1610s). Meaning "expert" is first recorded 1918, Australian slang, from earlier meaning "man who shears the most sheep per day" (1871).
ringing (n.)
"act of causing a bell to ring; sound made by a bell," 14c., verbal noun from ring (v.1). Meaning "ringing sensation in the ears" is from late 14c.
ringleader (n.)
c.1500, from Middle English phrase to lead the ring (mid-14c.), probably from a medieval metaphor from dancing. See ring (n.1) + lead (v.1).
ringlet (n.)
1550s, from ring (n.1) + diminutive suffix -let. Of hair, since 1660s. Related: Ringleted.
ringmaster (n.)
1842, from ring (n.1) in the circus sense + master (n.).
ringside (n.)
also ring-side, 1855, from ring (n.1) in the "space for fighting" sense + side (n.).
ringworm (n.)
name given to certain skin diseases, early 15c., from ring (n.1) + worm (n.).
rink (n.)
late 14c., Scottish dialect, probably from Old French renc, reng "row, line," from Frankish and ultimately connected with ring (n.1). Probably confused in meaning with ring (n.1) in sense of "area marked out for a sporting contest." From 1787 in curling; ice hockey sense first attested 1896.
rinky-dink (adj.)
1913 (from 1912 as a noun), said to be carnival slang and imitative of the sound of banjo music at parades [Barnhart]; compare ricky-tick "old-fashioned jazz" (1938). But early records suggest otherwise unless there are two words. The earliest senses seem to be as a noun, "maltreatment," especially robbery:
So I felt and saw that I was robbed and I went to look after an officer. I found an officer on the corner of Twenty-fifth street and Sixth avenue. I said, "Officer, I have got the rinky-dink." He knew what it meant all right. He said, "Where? Down at that wench house?" I said, "I guess that is right." [testimony dated New York August 9, 1899, published 1900]
And this chorus from the "Yale Literary Magazine," Feb. 1896:
Rinky dinky, rinky dink,
Stand him up for another drink.
rinse (v.)
c.1300 "subject to light washing; wash with water only" (mid-13c. in surname Rinsfet), from Old French reincier (transitive) "to wash, cleanse" (12c., Modern French rincer), probably dissimilated from recincier, from Vulgar Latin *recentiare "to make fresh, to wash, cleanse with water," from Late Latin recentare "to make fresh," from Latin recens "new, fresh" (see recent). OED says similarity in form and sense with Old Norse hreinsa is "prob[ably] accidental." Meaning "wash a second time to remove remaining impurities, soap, etc." is from 1520s. Related: Rinsed; rinsing.
rinse (n.)
1837, from rinse (v.). As a hair treatment, by 1928.
rio (n.)
"a river," from Spanish rio, from Latin rivus "brook, stream" (see rivulet).
Rio de Janeiro
literally "January River," named by explorer Amerigo Vespucci because he discovered it on Jan. 1, 1502, and so called because he incorrectly thought the bay was the estuary of a large river. See January.
riot (n.)
c.1200, "debauchery, extravagance, wanton living," from Old French riote (12c.) "dispute, quarrel, (tedious) talk, chattering, argument, domestic strife," also a euphemism for "sexual intercourse," of uncertain origin. Compare Medieval Latin riota "quarrel, dispute, uproar, riot." Perhaps from Latin rugire "to roar." Meaning "public disturbance" is first recorded late 14c. Meaning "something spectacularly successful" first recorded 1909 in theater slang.

Run riot is first recorded 1520s, a metaphoric extension from Middle English meaning in reference to hounds following the wrong scent. The Riot Act, part of which must be read to a mob before active measures can be taken, was passed 1714 (1 Geo. I, st.2, c.5). Riot girl and alternative form riot grrl first recorded 1992.
riot (v.)
late 14c., "behave in a dissolute manner, engage in loose revelry," from Old French rioter "chatter, dispute, quarrel," from riote (see riot (n.)). Meaning "take part in a public disturbance" is from 1755. Related: Rioted; rioting.
rioter (n.)
late 14c., "debauchee," from Old French riotour, from riote, (see riot (n.)). Meaning "one who takes part in a rising or public disturbance against authority" is from mid-15c.
rioting (n.)
1590s, "dissoluteness," verbal noun from riot (v.). Earlier was riotry (early 14c.). Meaning "continuous public disturbance" is from 1832.
riotous (adj.)
mid-14c., "troublesome, wanton, extravagant," from Old French riotos "argumentative, quarrelsome," from riote (see riot (n.)). Meaning "tumultuous, turbulent" is mid-15c. Related: Riotously; riotousness.
rip (v.)
"tear apart," c.1400, probably of North Sea Germanic origin (compare Flemish rippen "strip off roughly," Frisian rippe "to tear, rip") or else from a Scandinavian source (compare Swedish reppa, Danish rippe "to tear, rip"). In either case, from Proto-Germanic *rupjan-, from PIE root *reup-, *reub- "to snatch." Meaning "to slash open" is from 1570s. Related: Ripped; ripping.
In garments we rip along the line at which they were sewed; we tear the texture of the cloth. ... Rend implies great force or violence. [Century Dictionary]
Meaning "to move with slashing force" (1798) is the sense in let her rip, American English colloquial phrase attested from 1853. The noun is attested from 1711. The parachutist's rip cord (1911) originally was a device in ballooning to open a panel and release air.
rip (n.1)
"rough water," 1775, perhaps a special use of rip (v.). Originally of seas; application to rivers is from 1828.
rip (n.2)
"thing of little value," 1815, earlier "inferior or worn-out horse" (1778), perhaps altered from slang rep (1747) "man of loose character; vicious, reckless and worthless person," which itself is perhaps short for reprobate (n.).
Rip Van Winkle
"person out of touch with current conditions," 1829, from name of character in Washington Irving's "Sketch Book" (1819-20).
rip-off (n.)
"an act of fraud, a swindle," 1969, from verbal phrase rip off "to steal or rob" (c.1967) in U.S. black slang, from rip (v.) + off (adv.). Rip was prison slang for "to steal" since 1904, and was also used in this sense in 12c. Meaning "an exploitative imitation, a plagiarism" is from 1971. Related: Ripped-off.
rip-rap (n.)
also riprap, "loose stone thrown down in water or soft ground as foundation," 1822, American English, perhaps connected with earlier nautical word rip-rap meaning "stretch of rippling water" (often caused by underwater elevations), 1660s, probably of imitative origin (compare riprap "a sharp blow," 1570s).
rip-saw (n.)
"a hand saw, the teeth of which have more rake and less set than a cross-cut saw, used for cutting wood in the direction of the grain," 1846, from rip (n.) "split timber" (see rip (v.) + saw (n.1)).
rip-tide (n.)
also riptide, 1862, from rip (n.1) + tide (n.). It is a current not a tide, and the attempt to correct it to rip current dates from 1936.
riparian (adj.)
"of or pertaining to river banks," 1849, with -an + Latin riparius "of a river bank," from riparia "shore," later used in reference to the stream flowing between the banks, from ripa "(steep) bank of a river, shore," probably literally "break" (and indicating the drop off from ground level to the stream bed), or else "that which is cut out by the river," from PIE root *rei- "to scratch, tear, cut" (cognates: Greek ereipia "ruins," eripne "slope, precipice;" Old Norse rifa "break, to tear apart;" Danish rift "breach," Middle High German rif "riverbank, seashore;" English riven, rift).
ripe (adj.)
Old English ripe "ready for reaping, fit for eating, mature," from West Germanic *ripijaz (cognates: Old Saxon ripi, Middle Dutch ripe, Dutch rijp, Old High German rifi, German reif); related to Old English repan "to reap" (see reap). Meaning "ready for some action or effect" is from 1590s. Related: Ripely; ripeness.
ripen (v.)
"to grow ripe," 1560s, from ripe + -en (1). Related: Ripened; ripening. Earlier, the verb was simply ripe, from late Old English ripian, from the adjective.
riposte (n.)
1707, "a quick thrust after parrying a lunge," a fencing term, from French riposte, by dissimilation from risposte (17c.), from Italian risposta "a reply," noun use of fem. past participle of rispondere "to respond," from Latin respondere (see respond). Sense of "sharp retort; quick, sharp reply," is first attested 1865. As a verb, 1851.
ripper (n.)
1610s, agent noun from rip (v.). Meaning "killer who mutilates his victims" (1890) is from Jack the Ripper, notorious London murderer, whose nickname contains a pun on ripper in sense of "tool for ripping" old slates, etc. (1823) and the slang meaning "excellent person or thing, a 'ripping' fellow" (1838), from ripping "excellent, splendid."
ripping (adj.)
"cutting," 1714, present participle adjective from rip (v.). Slange meaning "Very fast, rapid" os from 1826, hence further slang development "excellent, splendid" (1846.). Related: Rippingly.
ripple (v.)
early 15c., "to crease;" 1660s, "to present a ruffled surface," of unknown origin, perhaps a frequentative of rip (v.). Transitive sense "cause to ripple" is from 1786. Related: Rippled; rippling.
ripple (n.)
"very small wave," 1798, from earlier meaning "stretch of shallow, rippling water" (1755), from ripple (v.). Meaning "mark or movement suggestive of a ripple" is from 1843. Meaning "ice cream streaked with colored syrup" first attested 1939, so called from its appearance. As the name of a brand of inexpensive wine sold by E&J Gallo Winery, from 1960 to 1984. Ripple effect is from 1950.
riproaring (adj.)
1834, altered from riproarious (1821), from rip (v.) "tear apart" + uproarious; see uproar.
ripsnorter (n.)
"something of exceptional strength," 1840, probably from rip (v.) + snort (v.).
rise (v.)
Old English risan "to rise, rise from sleep, get out of bed; stand up, rise to one's feet; get up from table; rise together; be fit, be proper" (usually arisan; class I strong verb; past tense ras, past participle risen), from Proto-Germanic *us-risanan "to go up" (cognates: Old Norse risa, Old Saxon risan, Gothic urreisan "to rise," Old High German risan "to rise, flow," German reisen "to travel," originally "to rise for a journey").

From c.1200 as "move from a lower to a higher position, move upward; increase in number or amount; rise in fortune, prosper; become prominent;" also "rise from the dead." Meaning "come into existence, originate; result (from)" is mid-13c. From early 14c. as "rebel, revolt;" also "occur, happen, come to pass; take place." Related to raise (v.). Related: Rose; risen.
rise (n.)
"upward movement," 1570s, from rise (v.). Meaning "a piece of rising ground" is from 1630s. Meaning "spring, source, origin, beginning" is from 1620s. Phrase to get a rise out of (someone) (1829) is a metaphor from angling (1650s).
risen
past participle of rise (v.); Old English gerisen, past participle of risan.
riser (n.)
late 14c., "rebel," agent noun from rise (v.). Meaning "one who rises" (from bed, in a certain manner) is mid-15c. Meaning "upright part of a step" is from 1771.
risible (adj.)
1550s, "given to laughter," from Middle French risible (14c.) and directly from Late Latin risibilis "laughable, able to laugh," from Latin risus, past participle of ridere "to laugh." Meaning "capable of exciting laughter, comical" is from 1727.
rising (n.)
c.1300, "resurrection, act of one who rises," verbal noun from rise (v.). Of heavenly bodies from mid-14c. Meaning "a getting up from bed" is c.1400. Sense of "insurrection" is late 14c.
rising (adj.)
1540s, present participle adjective from rise (v.).
risk (n.)
1660s, risque, from French risque (16c.), from Italian risco, riscio (modern rischio), from riscare "run into danger," of uncertain origin. The anglicized spelling first recorded 1728. Spanish riesgo and German Risiko are Italian loan-words. With run (v.) from 1660s. Risk aversion is recorded from 1942; risk factor from 1906; risk management from 1963; risk taker from 1892.
risk (v.)
1680s, from risk (n.), or from French risquer, from Italian riscare, rischaire, from the noun. Related: Risked; risks; risking.
risky (adj.)
1825, from risk (n.) + -y (2). Riskful in same sense is from 1793. Related: Riskiness.
Risorgimento (n.)
1889, "movement which led to the unification and independence of Italy," Italian, literally "uprising" (of Italy against Austria, c.1850-60), from risorgere, from Latin resurgere (see resurgent).