rampage (v.) Look up rampage at Dictionary.com
1715, in Scottish, probably from Middle English verb ramp "rave, rush wildly about" (c.1300), especially of beasts rearing on their hind legs, as if climbing, from Old French ramper (see ramp (n.1), also see rampant). Related: Rampaged; rampaging.
rampage (n.) Look up rampage at Dictionary.com
1861, from rampage (v.).
rampancy (n.) Look up rampancy at Dictionary.com
1660s, from rampant + -cy.
rampant (adj.) Look up rampant at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "standing on the hind legs" (as a heraldic lion often does), thus, also, "fierce, ravenous" (late 14c.), from Old French rampant, present participle of ramper "to climb, scale, mount" (see rampage (v.)). Sense of "growing without check" (in running rampant), first recorded 1610s, probably is via the notion of "fierce disposition" or else preserves the older French sense.
rampart (n.) Look up rampart at Dictionary.com
"earthen elevation around a place for fortification," sometimes also including parapets, 1580s, from Middle French rempart, rampart, from remparer "to fortify," from re- "again" (see re-) + emparer "fortify, take possession of," from Old Provençal amparer, from Vulgar Latin *anteparare "prepare," properly "to make preparations beforehand," from Latin ante- "before" (see ante) + parare "prepare" (see pare). With excrescent -t in French, perhaps by influence of boulevart (see boulevard).
ramrod (n.) Look up ramrod at Dictionary.com
1757, literally "a rod used in ramming" (the charge of a gun), from ram (v.) + rod. Used figuratively for straightness or stiffness from 1939, also figuratively for formality, primness (ramroddy is in Century Dictionary, 1902). The verb is 1948, from the noun. Related: Ramrodded; ramrodding.
ramshackle (adj.) Look up ramshackle at Dictionary.com
1809, back-formation from ramshackled, earlier ranshackled (1670s), alteration of ransackled, past participle of ransackle (see ransack). The word seems to have been Scottish.
Reading over this note to an American gentleman, he seemed to take alarm, lest the word ramshackle should be palmed on his country. I take it home willingly, as a Scotticism, and one well applied, as may be afterwards shown. [Robert Gourlay, "General Introduction to a Statistical Account of Upper Canada," London, 1822]
Jamieson's "Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language" (1825) has it as a noun meaning "thoughtless, ignorant fellow."
ramus (n.) Look up ramus at Dictionary.com
"a branch" (anatomical), 1803, from Latin ramus "a branch, bough, twig," related to radix "root;" see radish.
ran Look up ran at Dictionary.com
past tense of run (v.), Old English ran.
ranch (n.) Look up ranch at Dictionary.com
1808, "country house," from American Spanish rancho "small farm, group of farm huts," from Spanish rancho "mess-room," originally, "group of people who eat together," from ranchear "to lodge or station," from Old French ranger "install in position," from rang "row, line" (see rank (n.)).

Sense of "large stock-farm and herding establishment" is from 1831. Of houses, "single-story, split-level" (adj.) from 1950; as a noun from 1960. Ranch-house attested from 1862.
ranch (v.) Look up ranch at Dictionary.com
1866, from ranch (n.). Related: Ranched; ranching.
rancher (n.) Look up rancher at Dictionary.com
1836, "owner of a ranch;" see ranch (n.). Meaning "modern single-story house" attested from 1964.
ranchero (n.) Look up ranchero at Dictionary.com
"one employed on a ranch," 1826, from American Spanish ranchero, from rancho (see ranch (n.)).
rancid (adj.) Look up rancid at Dictionary.com
1640s, from Latin rancidus "rank, stinking, offensive" (also source of Italian rancido, Spanish rancio), from rancere "be spoiled or rotten," of unknown origin. German ranzig is from French rancide. Related: Rancidness.
rancor (n.) Look up rancor at Dictionary.com
c.1200, from Old French rancor "bitterness, resentment; grief, affliction," from Late Latin rancorem (nominative rancor) "rancidness, a stinking smell" (Palladius); "grudge, bitterness" (Hieronymus and in Late Latin), from Latin rancere "to stink" (see rancid).
rancorous (adj.) Look up rancorous at Dictionary.com
1580s, from rancor + -ous. Related: Rancorously; rancorousness.
rancour (n.) Look up rancour at Dictionary.com
chiefly British English spelling of rancor; for ending see -or. Related: Rancourous.
rand (n.) Look up rand at Dictionary.com
"rocky ridge overlooking a river valley," 1839, South African English, from Afrikaans, from Dutch rand "edge, margin," cognate with Old English rand "brink, bank." As a unit of currency, adopted by the Republic of South Africa in 1961 (see Krugerrand). Johnson's dictionary has rand "Border; seam: as the rand of a woman's shoe."
Randal Look up Randal at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, shortened from Old English Randwulf, from rand "shield" (see rand) + wulf "wolf" (see wolf (n.)). Compare Randolph.
Randolph Look up Randolph at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, from Old Norse Rannulfr "shield-wolf" and Frankish *Rannulf "raven-wolf," both brought to England by the Normans.
random (adj.) Look up random at Dictionary.com
"having no definite aim or purpose," 1650s, from at random (1560s), "at great speed" (thus, "carelessly, haphazardly"), alteration of Middle English noun randon "impetuosity, speed" (c.1300), from Old French randon "rush, disorder, force, impetuosity," from randir "to run fast," from Frankish *rant "a running" or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *randa (cognates: Old High German rennen "to run," Old English rinnan "to flow, to run;" see run (v.)).

In 1980s U.S. college student slang it began to acquire a sense of "inferior, undesirable." (A 1980 William Safire column describes it as a college slang noun meaning "person who does not belong on our dormitory floor.") Random access in reference to computer memory is recorded from 1953. Related: Randomly; randomness.
randomize (v.) Look up randomize at Dictionary.com
1926, from random (adj.) + -ize. Related: Randomized; randomizing.
randy (adj.) Look up randy at Dictionary.com
1690s, Scottish, "aggressive, boisterous," probably from rand "to rave," an obsolete variant of rant (v.). In the original sense especially of beggars, "and probably implying vagrant habits as well as rude behavior" [OED]. Sense of "lewd, lustful" first recorded 1847. Related: Randiness.
rang (v.) Look up rang at Dictionary.com
past tense of ring (v.1). Middle English, by analogy of sang/sing, etc.
range (v.) Look up range at Dictionary.com
c.1200, rengen, "move over a large area, roam with the purpose of searching or hunting," from Old French ranger, earlier rengier "to place in a row, arrange; get into line," from reng "row, line," from a Germanic source (see rank (n.)). Sense of "to arrange in rows" is recorded from c.1300; intransitive sense of "exist in a row or rows" is from c.1600. Related: Ranged; ranging.
range (n.) Look up range at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "row or line of persons" (especially hunters or soldiers), from Old French range "range, rank" (see range (v.)). General sense of "line, row" is from early 14c.; meaning "row of mountains" is from 1705.

Meaning "scope, extent" first recorded late 15c.; that of "area over which animals seek food" is from 1620s, from the verb. Specific U.S. sense of "series of townships six miles in width" is from 1785. Sense of "distance a gun can send a bullet" is recorded from 1590s; meaning "place used for shooting practice" is from 1862. The cooking appliance so called since mid-15c., for unknown reasons. Originally a stove built into a fireplace with openings on top for multiple operations. Range-finder attested from 1872.
ranger (n.) Look up ranger at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "gamekeeper," agent noun from range (v.)). Attested from 1660s in sense of "man (often mounted) who polices an area." The elite U.S. combat unit is attested from 1942 (organized 1941).
rangy (adj.) Look up rangy at Dictionary.com
"having a long, slender form" (as an animal suited to ranging), 1845, from range (v.) + -y (2). Also "adapted for ranging" (1868). Of landscapes, "hilly," 1862, Australian English. Related: Ranginess.
As a rule, we hold that the Jersey should be "growthy," deep-flanked, and loose-jointed, and should have, generally, the characteristics which farmers know as "rangy." ["American Agriculturalist," November 1876]
rank (v.) Look up rank at Dictionary.com
1570s, "arrange in lines;" 1590s, "put in order, classify; assign a rank to," from rank (n.). Related: Ranked; ranking.
rank (n.) Look up rank at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "row, line series;" c.1400, a row of an army, from Old French renc, ranc "row, line" (Modern French rang), from Frankish *hring or some other Germanic source (compare Old High German hring "circle, ring"), from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "circle, ring, something curved" (see ring (n.1)).

Meaning "a social division, class of persons" is from early 15c. Meaning "high station in society" is from early 15c. Meaning "a relative position" is from c.1600.
rank (adj.) Look up rank at Dictionary.com
Old English ranc "proud, overbearing, showy," from Proto-Germanic *rankaz (cognates: Danish rank "right, upright," German rank "slender," Old Norse rakkr "straight, erect"), perhaps from PIE *reg- "to stretch, straighten" (see right (adj.)). In reference to plant growth, "vigorous, luxuriant, abundant, copious" it is recorded from c.1300. Related: Rankly; rankness.

Sense evolved in Middle English to "large and coarse" (c.1300), then, via notion of "excessive and unpleasant," to "corrupt, loathsome, foul" (mid-14c.), perhaps from influence of Middle French rance "rancid." In 17c. also "lewd, lustful."

Much used 16c. as a pejorative intensive (as in rank folly). This is possibly the source of the verb meaning "to reveal another's guilt" (1929, underworld slang), and that of "to harass, abuse," 1934, U.S. black dialect, though this also may be from the role of the activity in establishing social hierarchy (from rank (n.)).
rank and file (n.) Look up rank and file at Dictionary.com
1590s, in reference to the horizontal and vertical lines of soldiers marching in formation; thence generalized to "common soldiers" (1796) and "common people, general body" of any group (1860).
rankle (v.) Look up rankle at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "to fester," from Old French rancler, earlier raoncler, draoncler "to suppurate, run," from draoncle "abscess, festering sore," from Medieval Latin dracunculus, literally "little dragon," diminutive of Latin draco "serpent, dragon" (see dragon). The notion is of an ulcer caused by a snake's bite. Meaning "cause to fester" is from c.1400. Related: Rankled; rankling.
ransack (v.) Look up ransack at Dictionary.com
mid-13c., from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse rannsaka "to pillage," literally "search the house" (especially legally, for stolen goods), from rann "house," from Proto-Germanic *rasnan (c.f. Gothic razn, Old English ærn "house;" see barn) + saka "to search," related to Old Norse soekja "seek" (see seek). Sense influenced by sack (v.). Related: Ransacked; ransacking.
ransom (n.) Look up ransom at Dictionary.com
c.1200, "sum paid for the release of a prisoner or captured man," from Old French ranson (Modern French rançon), earlier raenson "ransom, redemption," from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio) "a redeeming," from redimere (see redeem).
ransom Look up ransom at Dictionary.com
early 14c., from ransom (n.). Related: Ransomed; ransoming.
rant (v.) Look up rant at Dictionary.com
c.1600, "to be jovial and boisterous," also "to talk bombastically," from Dutch randten (earlier ranten) "talk foolishly, rave," of unknown origin (compare German rantzen "to frolic, spring about"). Related: Ranted; ranting. Ranters "antinomian sect which arose in England c.1645" is attested from 1651; applied 1823 to early Methodists. A 1700 slang dictionary has rantipole "a rude wild Boy or Girl" (also as a verb and adjective); to ride rantipole meant "The woman uppermost in the amorous congress" [Grose].
rant (n.) Look up rant at Dictionary.com
"boisterous, empty declamation; fierce or high-sounding language without much meaning or dignity of thought; bombast; a ranting speech," 1640s, from rant (v.).
rantallion (n.) Look up rantallion at Dictionary.com
"One whose scrotum is so relaxed as to be longer than his penis, i. e. whose shot pouch is longer than the barrel of his piece." ["Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue," Grose, 1785]
rap (n.) Look up rap at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "a quick, light blow, stroke," also "a fart" (late 15c.), native or borrowed from a Scandinavian source (compare Danish rap, Swedish rapp "light blow"); either way probably of imitative origin (compare slap, clap).

Slang meaning "rebuke, blame, responsibility" is from 1777; specific meaning "criminal indictment" (as in rap sheet, 1960) is from 1903. To beat the rap is from 1927. Meaning "music with improvised words" first in New York City slang, 1979 (see rap (v.2)).
rap (v.1) Look up rap at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "strike, smite, knock," from rap (n.). Related: Rapped; rapping. To rap (someone's) knuckles "give light punishment" is from 1749. Related: Rapped; rapping.
rap (v.2) Look up rap at Dictionary.com
"talk informally, chat," 1929, popularized c.1965 in Black English, possibly first in Caribbean English and from British slang meaning "say, utter" (1879), originally "to utter a sudden oath" (1540s), ultimately from rap (n.). As a noun in this sense from 1898. Meaning "to perform rap music" is recorded by 1979. Related: Rapped; rapping.
rapable (adj.) Look up rapable at Dictionary.com
1972, from rape (v.) + -able.
rapacious (adj.) Look up rapacious at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Latin rapaci-, stem of rapax "grasping," itself from stem of rapere "to seize" (see rapacity) + -ous. Related: Rapaciously; rapaciousness.
rapacity (n.) Look up rapacity at Dictionary.com
1540s, from Middle French rapacité (16c.), from Latin rapacitatem (nominative rapacitas) "greediness," from rapax (genitive rapacis) "grasping, plundering," from rapere "seize" (see rapid).
rape (v.) Look up rape at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "seize prey; abduct, take by force," from rape (n.) and from Anglo-French raper (Old French rapir) "to seize, abduct," a legal term, probably from past participle of Latin rapere "seize, carry off by force, abduct" (see rapid).

Latin rapere was used for "sexually violate," but only very rarely; the usual Latin word being stuprare "to defile, ravish, violate," related to stuprum (n.), literally "disgrace." Meaning "to abduct (a woman), ravish;" also "seduce (a man)" is from early 15c. in English. Related: Raped; raping. Uncertain connection to Low German and Dutch rapen in the same sense.
rape (n.1) Look up rape at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "booty, prey;" mid-14c., "forceful seizure; plundering, robbery, extortion," from Anglo-French rap, rape, and directly from Latin rapere "seize" (see rape (v.)). Meaning "act of abducting a woman or sexually violating her or both" is from early 15c., but perhaps late 13c. in Anglo-Latin.
rape (n.2) Look up rape at Dictionary.com
kind of cruciferous plant (Brassica napus), late 14c., from Old French rape, from Latin rapa, rapum "turnip," from PIE *rap- (cognates: Greek hrapys "rape," Old Church Slavonic repa, Lithuanian rope, Middle Dutch roeve, Old High German ruoba, German Rübe "rape, turnip"). Usually grown to feed sheep, an oil made from it is used in cooking (see canola).
Raphael Look up Raphael at Dictionary.com
masc. proper name, Biblical archangel (Apocrypha), from Late Latin, from Greek Rhaphael, from Hebrew Repha'el, literally "God has healed," from rapha "he healed" + el "God." Raphaelesque (1832) is in reference to painter Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520). See Pre-Raphaelite.
raphe (n.) Look up raphe at Dictionary.com
"seam, suture" (medical), 1753, medical Latin, from Greek rhaphe "seam, suture (of a skull)," from rhaptein "to sew together, stitch" (see wrap).