sacerdotal (adj.) Look up sacerdotal at Dictionary.com
c.1400, from Old French sacerdotal and directly from Latin sacerdotalis "of or pertaining to a priest," from sacerdos (genitive sacerdotis) "priest," literally "offerer of sacrifices," from sacer "holy" (see sacred) + stem of dare "to give" (see date (n.1)).
sachem (n.) Look up sachem at Dictionary.com
chief of an American Indian tribe, 1620s, from Narragansett (Algonquian) sachim "chief, ruler," cognate with Abenaki sangman, Delaware sakima, Micmac sakumow, Penobscot sagumo. Applied jocularly to a prominent member of any society from 1680s; specific political use in U.S. is from 1890, from its use as the title of the 12 high officials of the Tammany Society of New York.
sachet (n.) Look up sachet at Dictionary.com
"small perfumed bag," 1838, from French sachet (12c.), diminutive of sac (see sac). A reborrowing of a word that had been used 15c. in the sense "small bag, wallet."
sack (n.1) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"large bag," Old English sacc (West Saxon), sec (Mercian), sæc (Old Kentish) "large cloth bag," also "sackcloth," from Proto-Germanic *sakkiz (cognates: Middle Dutch sak, Old High German sac, Old Norse sekkr, but Gothic sakkus probably is directly from Greek), an early borrowing from Latin saccus (also source of Old French sac, Spanish saco, Italian sacco), from Greek sakkos, from Semitic (compare Hebrew saq "sack").

The wide spread of the word is probably due to the Biblical story of Joseph, in which a sack of corn figures (Gen. xliv). Baseball slang sense of "a base" is attested from 1913. Slang meaning "bunk, bed" is from 1825, originally nautical. The verb meaning "go to bed" is recorded from 1946. Sack race attested from 1805.
sack (n.2) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"a dismissal from work," 1825, from sack (n.1), perhaps from the notion of the worker going off with his tools in a bag; the original formula was to give (someone) the sack. It is attested earlier in French (on luy a donné son sac, 17c.) and Dutch (iemand de zak geven).
sack (n.4) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"sherry," 1530s, alteration of French vin sec "dry wine," from Latin siccus "dry" (see siccative).
sack (v.1) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"to plunder," 1540s, from Middle French sac, in the phrase mettre à sac "put it in a bag," a military leader's command to his troops to plunder a city (parallel to Italian sacco, with the same range of meaning), from Vulgar Latin *saccare "to plunder," originally "to put plundered things into a sack," from Latin saccus "bag" (see sack (n.1)). The notion is probably of putting booty in a bag.
sack (n.3) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"plunder; act of plundering, the plundering of a city or town after storming and capture," 1540s, from French sac "pillage, plunder," from Italian sacco (see sack (v.1)).
sack (v.2) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"put in a bag," late 14c., from sack (n.1). Related: Sacked; sacking.
sack (v.4) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
type of U.S. football play, 1969, from sack (v.1) in the sense of "to plunder" or sack (v.2) on the notion of "put in a bag." As a noun from 1972.
sack (v.3) Look up sack at Dictionary.com
"dismiss from work," 1841, from sack (n.2). Related: Sacked; sacking.
sackbut (n.) Look up sackbut at Dictionary.com
medieval wind instrument, c.1500, from French saquebute, a bass trumpet with a slide like a trombone; presumably identical with Old North French saqueboute (14c.), "a lance with an iron hook for pulling down mounted men," said to be from Old North French saquier "to pull, draw" + bouter "to thrust," from Germanic *buton (see butt (v.)). Originally in English with many variant spellings, including sagbutt, shakbott, shagbush.

In Dan. iii:5, used wrongly to translate Aramaic sabbekha, name of a stringed instrument (translated correctly in Septuagint as sambuke, and in Vulgate as sambuca, both names of stringed instruments, and probably ultimately cognate with the Aramaic word). The error began with Coverdale (1535), who evidently thought it was a wind instrument and rendered it with shawm; the Geneva translators, evidently following Coverdale, chose sackbut because it sounded like the original Aramaic word, and this was followed in KJV and Revised versions.
sackcloth (n.) Look up sackcloth at Dictionary.com
penitential or grieving garb, late 13c., literally "cloth of which sacks are made," from sack (n.1) + cloth. In the Biblical sense it was of goats' or camels' hair, the coarsest possible clothing.
sacral (adj.) Look up sacral at Dictionary.com
1767, in anatomy, "of or pertaining to the sacrum, from Modern Latin sacralis. In anthropology, "pertaining to religious rites," 1882, from Latin sacrum "sacred thing, rite" (see sacred). Related: sacralization.
sacrament (n.) Look up sacrament at Dictionary.com
"outward and visible sign of inward and spiritual grace," also "the eucharist," c.1200, from Old French sacrament "consecration; mystery" (12c., Modern French sacrement) and directly from Latin sacramentum "a consecrating" (also source of Spanish sacramento, German Sakrament, etc.), from sacrare "to consecrate" (see sacred); a Church Latin loan-translation of Greek mysterion (see mystery).

Meaning "a holy mystery" in English is from late 14c. The seven sacraments are baptism, penance, confirmation, holy orders, the Eucharist, matrimony, and anointing of the sick (extreme unction).
sacramental (adj.) Look up sacramental at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from Old French sacramental or directly from Late Latin sacramentalis, from sacramentum (see sacrament). As a noun, "religious practice or object," mid-15c.
Sacramento Look up Sacramento at Dictionary.com
California city, settled 1839, named for its river (1808), from Spanish sacramento, in honor of the Holy Sacrament (see sacrament).
sacre bleu (interj.) Look up sacre bleu at Dictionary.com
stereotypical French oath, 1869, from French sacré bleu, literally "holy blue," a euphemism for sacré Dieu (1768), "holy God." From Old French sacrer, from Latin sacrare (see sacred).
sacred (adj.) Look up sacred at Dictionary.com
late 14c., past participle adjective from obsolete verb sacren "to make holy" (c.1200), from Old French sacrer "consecrate, anoint, dedicate" (12c.) or directly from Latin sacrare "to make sacred, consecrate; hold sacred; immortalize; set apart, dedicate," from sacer (genitive sacri) "sacred, dedicated, holy, accursed," from Old Latin saceres, from PIE root *sak- "to sanctify." Buck groups it with Oscan sakrim, Umbrian sacra and calls it "a distinctive Italic group, without any clear outside connections." Related: Sacredness.

Nasalized form is sancire "make sacred, confirm, ratify, ordain." Sacred cow "object of Hindu veneration," is from 1891; figurative sense of "one who must not be criticized" is first recorded 1910, reflecting Western views of Hinduism. Sacred Heart "the heart of Jesus as an object of religious veneration" is from 1765.
sacrifice (n.) Look up sacrifice at Dictionary.com
late 13c., "offering of something (especially a life) to a deity as an act of propitiation or homage;" mid-14c., "that which is offered in sacrifice," from Old French sacrifise "sacrifice, offering" (12c.), from Latin sacrificium, from sacrificus "performing priestly functions or sacrifices," from sacra "sacred rites" (properly neuter plural of sacer "sacred;" see sacred) + root of facere "to do, perform" (see factitious).

Latin sacrificium is glossed in Old English by ansegdniss. Sense of "act of giving up one thing for another; something given up for the sake of another" is first recorded 1590s. Baseball sense first attested 1880.
sacrifice (v.) Look up sacrifice at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "to offer something (to a deity, as a sacrifice)," from sacrifice (n.). Meaning "surrender, give up, suffer to be lost" is from 1706. Related: Sacrificed; sacrificing. Agent noun forms include sacrificer, sacrificator (both 16c., the latter from Latin); and sacrificulist (17c.).
sacrificial (adj.) Look up sacrificial at Dictionary.com
c.1600, from Latin sacrificium "a sacrifice" (see sacrifice (n.)) + -al (1). Related: Sacrificially.
sacrilege (n.) Look up sacrilege at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "crime of stealing what is consecrated to God," from Old French sacrilege (12c.), from Latin sacrilegium "temple robbery, a stealing of sacred things," from sacrilegus "stealer of sacred things," noun use of adjective, from phrase sacrum legere "to steal sacred things," from sacrum "sacred object" (from neuter singular of sacer "sacred;" see sacred) + legere "take, pick up" (see lecture (n.)). Second element is not from religion. Transferred sense of "profanation of anything held sacred" is attested from late 14c.
sacrilegious (adj.) Look up sacrilegious at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., from Latin sacrilegiosum, from sacrilegium (see sacrilege). As a noun, "one who commits a sacrilege," early 14c. Related: Sacrilegiously; sacrilegiousness.
sacristan (n.) Look up sacristan at Dictionary.com
"officer charged with looking after the buildings and property of a church or religious house," early 14c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Medieval Latin sacristanus, from Latin sacrista, from sacer (genitive sacri) "sacred" (see sacred). Compare sexton, which is a doublet.
sacristy (n.) Look up sacristy at Dictionary.com
"repository for sacred things," mid-15c., from Anglo-French sacrestie, from Medieval Latin sacrista, from Latin sacer "sacred" (see sacred).
sacro- Look up sacro- at Dictionary.com
word-forming element meaning "of or involving the sacrum, the bone at the base of the spine. E.g. sacro-iliac.
sacrosanct (adj.) Look up sacrosanct at Dictionary.com
"superlatively sacred or inviolable," c.1600, from Latin sacrosanctus "protected by religious sanction, consecrated with religious ceremonies," from sacro, ablative of sacrum "religious sanction" (from neuter singular of sacer "sacred") + sanctus, past participle of sancire "make sacred" (for both, see sacred). Earlier in partially anglicized form sacro-seint (c.1500).
sacrum (n.) Look up sacrum at Dictionary.com
bone at the base of the spine, 1753, from Late Latin os sacrum "sacred bone," from Latin os "bone" (see osseous) + sacrum, neuter of sacer "sacred" (see sacred). Said to be so called because the bone was the part of animals that was offered in sacrifices. Translation of Greek hieron osteon. Greek hieros also can mean "strong," and some sources suggest the Latin is a mistranslation of Galen, who was calling it "the strong bone."
sad (adj.) Look up sad at Dictionary.com
Old English sæd "sated, full, having had one's fill (of food, drink, fighting, etc.), weary of," from Proto-Germanic *sathaz (cognates: Old Norse saðr, Middle Dutch sat, Dutch zad, Old High German sat, German satt, Gothic saþs "satiated, sated, full"), from PIE *seto- (cognates: Latin satis "enough, sufficient," Greek hadros "thick, bulky," Old Church Slavonic sytu, Lithuanian sotus "satiated," Old Irish saith "satiety," sathach "sated"), from root *sa- "to satisfy" (cognates: Sanskrit a-sinvan "insatiable").

Sense development passed through the meaning "heavy, ponderous" (i.e. "full" mentally or physically), and "weary, tired of" before emerging c.1300 as "unhappy." An alternative course would be through the common Middle English sense of "steadfast, firmly established, fixed" (as in sad-ware "tough pewter vessels") and "serious" to "grave." In the main modern sense, it replaced Old English unrot, negative of rot "cheerful, glad."

Meaning "very bad" is from 1690s. Slang sense of "inferior, pathetic" is from 1899; sad sack is 1920s, popularized by World War II armed forces (specifically by cartoon character invented by Sgt. George Baker, 1942, and published in U.S. Armed Forces magazine "Yank"), probably a euphemistic shortening of common military slang phrase sad sack of shit.
saddelry (n.) Look up saddelry at Dictionary.com
mid-15c., "occupation or trade of a saddler," from saddler + -y (1). From 1841 as "place where saddles are made or sold."
sadden (v.) Look up sadden at Dictionary.com
"to make sorrowful," 1620s, from sad + -en (1). Earlier verb was simply sade, from Old English sadian, which also could be the immediate source of the modern verb. Intransitive meaning "to become sad" is from 1718. Related: Saddened; saddening.
saddle (n.) Look up saddle at Dictionary.com
Old English sadol "seat for a rider," from Proto-Germanic *sathulaz (cognates: Old Norse söðull, Old Frisian sadel, Dutch zadel, zaal, German Sattel "saddle"), from PIE *sed- (1) "to sit" (cognates: Latin sedere "to sit," Old Church Slavonic sedlo "saddle;" see sedentary). Figurative phrase in the saddle "in an active position of management" is attested from 1650s. Saddle stitch (n.) was originally in bookbinding (1887).
saddle (v.) Look up saddle at Dictionary.com
Old English sadolian "to put a riding saddle on;" see saddle (n.). The meaning "to load with a burden" is first recorded 1690s. Related: Saddled; saddling.
saddle-tree (n.) Look up saddle-tree at Dictionary.com
"framework of a saddle," early 15c., from saddle (n.) + tree (n.) in the "wood" sense.
saddleback (n.) Look up saddleback at Dictionary.com
1540s and thereafter in various senses (of landforms, oysters, etc.), from saddle (n.) + back (n.).
saddlebag (n.) Look up saddlebag at Dictionary.com
also saddle-bag, 1774, from saddle (n.) + bag (n.).
saddler (n.) Look up saddler at Dictionary.com
"maker of saddles," c.1300 (late 13c. as a surname), agent noun from saddle (v.).
Sadducee (n.) Look up Sadducee at Dictionary.com
Old English, from Late Latin Sadducaei (plural), from Greek Zaddoukaios, an inexact transliteration of Hebrew tzedoqi, from personal name Tzadhoq "Zadok" (2 Sam. viii:17), the high priest from whom the priesthood of the captivity claimed descent. According to Josephus, the sect denied the resurrection of the dead and the existence of angels and spirits; but later historians regard them as more the political party of the priestly class than a sect per se. Related: Sadducean.
Sadie Look up Sadie at Dictionary.com
fem. proper name, a familiar form of Sarah. Sadie Hawkins Day (1939) is from name of a character in U.S. newspaper cartoon strip "Li'l Abner," by Al Capp (1909-1979); in reference to a day in early November in which women take the lead in romantic matters.
sadism (n.) Look up sadism at Dictionary.com
"love of cruelty," 1888, from French sadisme, from the name of Count Donatien A.F. de Sade (1740-1815). Not a marquis, though usually now called one, he was notorious for cruel sexual practices he described in his novels.
sadist (n.) Look up sadist at Dictionary.com
1892, from sadism + -ist.
sadistic (adj.) Look up sadistic at Dictionary.com
1892, after German sadistisch; see sadism. Related: Sadistically.
sadly (adv.) Look up sadly at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "heavily," also "solidly," from sad + -ly (2). Meaning "sorrowfully" is mid-14c.
sadness (n.) Look up sadness at Dictionary.com
early 14c., "seriousness," from sad + -ness. Meaning "sorrowfulness" is c.1500, perhaps c.1400.
sado-masochism (n.) Look up sado-masochism at Dictionary.com
also sadomasochism, 1916, from comb. form of sadism + masochism. Abbreviation S & M first attested 1965. An earlier word for sexualities that focused on violence was algolagnia (1900), Modern Latin, coined in German in 1892 by German doctor and paranormalist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929) from Greek algos "pain" + lagneia "lust."
sado-masochist (n.) Look up sado-masochist at Dictionary.com
also sadomasochist, 1919; from comb. form of sadist + masochist. Related: Sadomasochistic; sado-masochistic. Earlier was sadistic-masochistic (1892).
safari (n.) Look up safari at Dictionary.com
1890 (attested from 1860 as a foreign word), from Swahili, literally "journey, expedition," from Arabic, literally "referring to a journey," from safar "journey" (which itself is attested in English as a foreign word from 1858). Used from 1920s of various articles of clothing suitable for safaris.
safe (n.) Look up safe at Dictionary.com
"chest for keeping food or valuables," early 15c., save, from Middle French en sauf "in safety," from sauf (see safe (adj.)). Spelling with -f- first recorded 1680s, from influence of safe (adj.).
safe (adj.) Look up safe at Dictionary.com
c.1300, "unscathed, unhurt, uninjured; free from danger or molestation, in safety, secure; saved spiritually, redeemed, not damned;" from Old French sauf "protected, watched-over; assured of salvation," from Latin salvus "uninjured, in good health, safe," related to salus "good health," saluber "healthful," all from PIE *solwos from root *sol- "whole" (cognates: Latin solidus "solid," Sanskrit sarvah "uninjured, intact, whole," Avestan haurva- "uninjured, intact," Old Persian haruva-, Greek holos "whole").

As a quasi-preposition from c.1300, on model of French and Latin cognates. From late 14c. as "rescued, delivered; protected; left alive, unkilled." Meaning "not exposed to danger" (of places) is attested from late 14c.; of actions, etc., "free from risk," first recorded 1580s. Meaning "sure, reliable, not a danger" is from c.1600. Sense of "conservative, cautious" is from 1823. Paired alliteratively with sound (adj.) from late 14c. The noun safe-conduct (late 13c.) is from Old French sauf-conduit (13c.).