symbology (n.) Look up symbology at
1840, contracted from symbolology, from comb. form of Greek symbolon "token" (see symbol) + -ology.
symbololatry (n.) Look up symbololatry at
"worship of symbols," 1828, from symbolo-, comb. form of symbol, + -latry.
symmetric (adj.) Look up symmetric at
1796, from symmetry + -ic. Earlier in the same sense was symmetral (1650s).
symmetrical (adj.) Look up symmetrical at
1751, from symmetry + -ical. Related: Symmetrically (1570s).
symmetrize (v.) Look up symmetrize at
1749, from French symmétriser, from symmétrie (see symmetry). Related: Symmetrize; symmetrizing.
symmetrophobia (n.) Look up symmetrophobia at
1809, from comb. form of symmetry + -phobia. Supposed to be evident in Egyptian temples and Japanese art.
symmetry (n.) Look up symmetry at
1560s, "relation of parts, proportion," from Middle French symmétrie (16c.) and directly from Latin symmetria, from Greek symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement," from symmetros "having a common measure, even, proportionate," from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + metron "meter" (see meter (n.2)). Meaning "harmonic arrangement of parts" first recorded 1590s.
sympathetic (adj.) Look up sympathetic at
1640s, "pertaining to sympathy," from Modern Latin sympatheticus, from late Greek sympathetikos "having sympathy," from sympathein, from sympathes "having a fellow feeling, affected by like feelings" (see sympathy). In English, the meaning "having fellow feeling, susceptible to altruistic feelings" is recorded from 1718.

In the anatomical sense, "subject to a common nervous influence," the word is attested from 1769, from Modern Latin (nervus) sympathicus, coined by Jacques-Benigne Winslow (1669-1760), Danish anatomist living in Paris. Related: Sympathetical (1630s); Sympathetically (1620s).
sympathise (v.) Look up sympathise at
chiefly British English spelling of sympathize (q.v.); for suffix, see -ize. Related: Sympathised; sympathising.
sympathize (v.) Look up sympathize at
"have fellow-feeling," c. 1600, from Middle French sympathiser, from sympathie (see sympathy). Earlier in a physiological sense (1590s). As "express sympathy," from 1748. Related: Sympathized; sympathizing.
sympathizer (n.) Look up sympathizer at
1815, agent noun from sympathize.
sympathy (n.) Look up sympathy at
1570s, "affinity between certain things," from Middle French sympathie (16c.) and directly from Late Latin sympathia "community of feeling, sympathy," from Greek sympatheia "fellow-feeling, community of feeling," from sympathes "having a fellow feeling, affected by like feelings," from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + pathos "feeling" (see pathos).

In English, almost a magical notion at first; used in reference to medicines that heal wounds when applied to a cloth stained with blood from the wound. Meaning "conformity of feelings" is from 1590s; sense of "fellow feeling, compassion" is first attested c. 1600. An Old English loan-translation of sympathy was efensargung.
sympatric (adj.) Look up sympatric at
1904, from assimilated form of syn- + Greek patra "fatherland," from pater "father" (see father (n.)) + -ic. Opposite of allopatric.
symphonic (adj.) Look up symphonic at
1854 "involving similarity of sounds or harmony" (implied in symphonically); see symphony + -ic. Meaning "pertaining to a symphony" is from 1864. Earlier was symphonious (1650s).
symphony (n.) Look up symphony at
c. 1300, a name given to various types of musical instruments, from Old French simphonie, sifonie, simfone "musical harmony; stringed instrument" (12c., Modern French symphonie) and directly from Latin symphonia "a unison of sounds, harmony," from Greek symphonia "harmony, concord of sounds," from symphonos "harmonious, agreeing in sound," from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + phone "voice, sound," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say" (see fame (n.)).

Meaning "harmony of sounds" in English is attested from late 14c.; sense of "music in parts" is from 1590s. "It was only after the advent of Haydn that this word began to mean a sonata for full orchestra. Before that time it meant a prelude, postlude, or interlude, or any short instrumental work." ["Elson's Music Dictionary"] Meaning "elaborate orchestral composition" first attested 1789. Elliptical for "symphony orchestra" from 1926. Diminutive symphonette is recorded from 1947.
symphysis (n.) Look up symphysis at
union of bones, 1570s, medical Latin, from Greek symphysis "a growing together, union," from assimilated form of assimilated form of syn "together" (see syn-) + physis "growth" (see physics). Related: Symphytic.
symposium (n.) Look up symposium at
1580s, "account of a gathering or party," from Latin symposium "drinking party, symposium," from Greek symposion "drinking party, convivial gathering of the educated" (related to sympotes "drinking companion"), from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + posis "a drinking," from a stem of Aeolic ponen "to drink," cognate with Latin potare "to drink" (see potion).
The symposium usually followed a dinner, for the Greeks did not drink at meals. Its enjoyment was heightened by intellectual or agreeable conversation, by the introduction of music or dancers, and by other amusements. [Century Dictionary]
The sense of "a meeting on some subject" is from 1784. Reflecting the Greek fondness for mixing wine and intellectual discussion, the modern sense is especially from the word being used as a title for one of Plato's dialogues. Greek plural is symposia, and the leader of one is a symposiarch (c. 1600 in English). Related: Symposiac (adj.); symposial.
symptom (n.) Look up symptom at
1540s, re-Latinized from sinthoma (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin sinthoma "symptom of a disease," altered from Late Latin symptoma, from Greek symptoma "a happening, accident, disease," from stem of sympiptein "to befall, happen; coincide, fall together," from assimilated form of syn- "together" (see syn-) + piptein "to fall," from PIE *pi-pt-, reduplicated form of root *pet- "to rush; to fly" (see petition (n.)).

Spelling restored in early Modern English in part by influence of Middle French symptome (16c.). General (non-medical) use is from 1610s.
symptomatic (adj.) Look up symptomatic at
1690s, from French symptomatique or directly from Late Latin symptomaticus, from symptomat-, stem of symptoma (see symptom). General sense of "indicative (of)" is from 1751. Related: Symptomatical (1580s).
symptomatology (n.) Look up symptomatology at
study of symptoms, 1737, from medical Latin symptomatologia, from symptomat-, stem of symptoma (see symptom) + -logia (see -logy). Related: Symptomatological.
symptomology (n.) Look up symptomology at
1830, shortening of symptomatology.
syn- Look up syn- at
word-forming element meaning "together with, jointly; alike; at the same time," also sometimes completive or intensive, from Greek syn (prep.) "with, together with, along with, in the company of," from PIE *ksun- "with" (cognates: Russian so- "with, together," from Old Russian su(n)-). Assimilated to -l-, reduced to sy- before -s- and -z-, and altered to sym- before -b-, -m- and -p-. Since 1970s also with a sense of "synthetic."
synaesthesia (n.) Look up synaesthesia at
also synesthesia, "sensation in one part of the body produced by stimulus in another," 1881, in some cases via French, from Modern Latin, from Greek syn- "together" (see syn-) + aisthesis "feeling" (from PIE root *au- "to perceive;" see audience) + abstract noun ending -ia. Also psychologically, of the senses (colors that seem to the perceiver to having odor, etc.), from 1891. Related: Synaesthetic (adj.).
synagogue (n.) Look up synagogue at
late 12c., "the regular public worship of the Jews," also the building in which this is done, from Old French sinagoge "synagogue, mosque, pagan temple" (11c., Modern French synagogue), from Late Latin synagoga "congregation of Jews," from Greek synagoge "place of assembly, synagogue; meeting, assembly," literally "a bringing together," from synagein "to gather, bring together, assemble," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + agein "bring, lead" (see act (v.)).

Used by Greek translators of the Old Testament as a loan-translation of late Hebrew keneseth "assembly" (as in beth keneseth "synagogue," literally "house of assembly;" compare Knesset). Related: Synagogical; synagogal.
synallagmatic (adj.) Look up synallagmatic at
"expressing reciprocal obligations," from Greek synallagmatikos, from synallagma "a covenant, contract," from syn- "together with" (see syn-) + allagma "thing taken in exchange," from stem of allassein "to exchange, barter," from allos "another" (see alias (adv.)).
synapse (n.) Look up synapse at
"junction between two nerve cells," 1899, medical Latin, from Greek synapsis "conjunction," from or related to synaptein "to clasp, join together, tie or bind together, be connected with," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + haptein "to fasten" (see apse). Introduced by English physiologist Sir Michael Foster (1836-1907) at the suggestion of English classical scholar Arthur Woollgar Verral (1851-1912).
synapsis (n.) Look up synapsis at
plural synapses, 1895 in cellular biology, Modern Latin, from Greek synapsis "connection, junction" (see synapse).
synaptic (adj.) Look up synaptic at
1895, used as an adjective corresponding to synapsis, from Greek synaptikos, literally "connective, copulative."
sync (n.) Look up sync at
also synch, 1929, shortened form of synchronization (see synchronize). Originally in reference to soundtracks and pictures in the movies. Sense of "synchronization, harmony, agreement" first recorded 1961 in in sync. As a verb, short for synchronize, by 1945.
synchronic (adj.) Look up synchronic at
"occurring at the same time," 1775, shortening of synchronical (1650s), from Late Latin synchronus "simultaneous" (see synchronous). Linguistic sense is first recorded 1922, probably a borrowing from French synchronique (de Saussure, 1913). Synchronal "simultaneous" is from 1650s. Related: synchronically.
synchronicity (n.) Look up synchronicity at
1953; from synchronic + -ity. Originally in Jung. Synchroneity is from 1889, but equally malformed, and see synchronism.
synchronism (n.) Look up synchronism at
1580s, "quality of being synchronous," from Modern Latin synchronismus, from Greek synkhronismos, from synkhronos (see synchronous). Meaning "recurring at the same successive instants of time" is from 1854.
synchronization (n.) Look up synchronization at
1828, noun of action or state from synchronize.
synchronize (v.) Look up synchronize at
1620s, "to occur at the same time," from Greek synkhronizein "be of the same time," from synkhronos "happening at the same time" (see synchronous). The transitive sense of "make synchronous" is first recorded 1806. Of timepieces by 1879. Related: Synchronized; synchronizing. Synchronized swimming is recorded from 1950.
synchronous (adj.) Look up synchronous at
1660s, "existing or happening at the same time," from Late Latin synchronus "simultaneous," from Greek synkhronos "happening at the same time," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + khronos "time" (see chrono-). Meaning "recurring at the same successive instants of time" is attested from 1670s. Related: Synchronously.
synchrony (n.) Look up synchrony at
"occurrence or existence at the same time," 1848, from Greek synkhronos (see synchronous) + -y (2).
synclinal (adj.) Look up synclinal at
"sloping downward on both sides," 1833 (in Lyell), from -al (1) + Latinized form of stem of Greek synklinein "to incline, lean," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + klinein "to slope" (see lean (v.)).
syncline (n.) Look up syncline at
1855, back-formation from synclinal.
syncopate (v.) Look up syncopate at
c. 1600, "shorten words by omitting syllables or letters in the middle," back-formation from syncopation, or else from Late Latin syncopatus, past participle of syncopare "to shorten," also "to faint away, to swoon," from Late Latin syncope (see syncope). Musical sense is from 1660s. Related: Syncopated; syncopating.
syncopation (n.) Look up syncopation at
1530s, "contraction of a word by omission of middle sounds," from Medieval Latin syncopationem (nominative syncopatio) "a shortening or contraction," from past participle stem of syncopare "to shorten," also "to faint away, to swoon," from Late Latin syncope (see syncope). Musical sense is attested from 1590s.
syncope (n.) Look up syncope at
1520s, "contraction of a word by omission of middle sounds or letters," from Latin syncope "contraction of a word by elision," from Greek synkope "contraction of a word," originally "a cutting off, cutting up, cutting short," from synkoptein "to cut up," from syn- "together, thoroughly" (see syn-) + koptein "to cut," from PIE root *kop- "to beat, strike" (see hatchet (n.)).

An earlier use of the word in pathology is represented by Middle English syncopis, sincopin "loss of consciousness accompanied by weak pulse" (c. 1400, from Late Latin accusative syncopen); compare Old French syncope "illness, fainting fit" ("failure of the heart's action," hence "unconsciousness"). The spelling of this was re-Latinized 16c. Related: Syncopic; syncoptic.
syncretism (n.) Look up syncretism at
"reconciliation of different beliefs," 1610s, from French syncrétisme (17c.) and directly from Modern Latin syncretismus (used by German Protestant theologian David Pareus, 1615), from Greek synkretismos "union of communities," from synkretizein "to combine against a common enemy," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + second element of uncertain origin. One theory connects it with kretismos "lying," from kretizein "to lie like a Cretan;" another connects it with the stem of kerannynai "to mix, blend;" krasis "mixture." Related: Syncretist; syncretistic.
syncretize (v.) Look up syncretize at
1670s, from Latinized form of Greek synkretizein (see syncretism). Related: Syncretized; syncretizing.
syncytial (adj.) Look up syncytial at
1895, "pertaining to a syncytium" (1877), Modern Latin, from Greek syn "together" (see syn-) + kytos "receptacle, vessel," used in biology for "cell" (see cyto-).
syndetic (adj.) Look up syndetic at
"connecting," 1874, from -ic + Greek syndetos "bound together," adjective of syndein (see asyndeton).
syndic (n.) Look up syndic at
c. 1600, "a civil magistrate, especially in Geneva," from French syndic "chief representative" (14c.), from Late Latin syndicus "representative of a group or town," from Greek syndikos "public advocate," as an adjective, "belonging jointly to," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + dike "judgment, justice, usage, custom" (cognate with Latin dicere "to show, tell;" see diction). Meaning "accredited representative of a university or other corporation" first found c. 1600. Related: Syndical.
syndicalism (n.) Look up syndicalism at
1907, from French syndicalisme "movement to transfer ownership of means of production and distribution to industrial workers," from syndical "of a labor union," from syndic "chief representative" (see syndic).
"Syndicalism" is in France the new, all-absorbing form of Labor's conflict with Capital. Its growth has been so rapid that its gravity is not appreciated abroad. This year, even more than last, the strikes and other "direct action," which it has combined, have upset the industrial life of the country, and forced the attention of Parliament and Government. ["The Nation," June 20, 1907]
syndicate (n.) Look up syndicate at
1620s, "council or body of representatives," from French syndicat (15c.), from syndic "representative of a corporation" (see syndic) + -at (see -ate (1)). Meaning "combination of capitalists or companies to carry out some commercial undertaking" first occurs 1865. Publishing sense of "association of publishers for purchasing articles, etc., for simultaneous publication in a number of newspapers" is from 1889. As a synonym for "organized crime, the Mob" it is recorded from 1929.
syndicate (v.) Look up syndicate at
1889, "form into a syndicate," from syndicate (n.). Meaning "sell for simultaneous publication" is from 1889. Earlier it meant "to judge, censure" (1610s), from Medieval Latin syndicatus, past participle of syndicare. Related: Syndicated; syndicating.
syndication (n.) Look up syndication at
1887, "act of forming a syndicate," from syndicate (n.) + -ion. Sense of "publication, broadcast, or ownership by a syndicate" is attested from 1925.