shutter-bug (n.) Look up shutter-bug at
"enthusiastic amateur photographer," 1940, from shutter (n.) + bug (n.) in the "enthusiast" sense.
shuttle (v.) Look up shuttle at
1550s, "move rapidly to and fro," from shuttle (n.); sense of "transport via a shuttle service" is recorded from 1930. Related: Shuttled; shuttling.
shuttle (n.) Look up shuttle at
Old English scytel "a dart, arrow," from Proto-Germanic *skutilaz (source also of Old Norse skutill "harpoon"), from PIE *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw, to project" (see shoot (v.)). The original sense in English is obsolete; the weaving instrument so called (mid-14c.) from being "shot" across the threads. Sense of "train that runs back and forth" is first recorded 1895, from image of the weaver's instrument's back-and-forth movement over the warp; extended to aircraft 1942, to spacecraft 1969. In some other languages, the weaving instrument takes its name from its resemblance to a boat (Latin navicula, French navette, German weberschiff).
shuttlecock (n.) Look up shuttlecock at
1570s, from shuttle (v.) + cock (n.2).
shy (adj.) Look up shy at
late Old English sceoh "timid, easily startled," from Proto-Germanic *skeukh(w)az "afraid" (source also of Middle Low German schüwe, Dutch schuw, German scheu "shy;" Old High German sciuhen, German scheuchen "to scare away"). Uncertain cognates outside Germanic, unless in Old Church Slavonic shchuti "to hunt, incite." Italian schivare "to avoid," Old French eschiver "to shun" are Germanic loan-words. Meaning "lacking, short of" is from 1895, American English gambling slang. Related: Shyly; shyness.
shy (v.1) Look up shy at
"to throw (a missile) with a jerk or toss," 1787, colloquial, of unknown origin and uncertain connection to shy (adj.). Related: Shied; shying.
shy (v.2) Look up shy at
"to recoil," 1640s, from shy (adj.). Related: Shied; shying.
Shylock (n.) Look up Shylock at
"usurer, merciless creditor," 1786, from Jewish money-lender character in Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" (c. 1596).
shyster (n.) Look up shyster at
"unscrupulous lawyer," 1843, U.S. slang, probably altered from German Scheisser "incompetent worthless person," from Scheisse "shit" (n.), from Old High German skizzan "to defecate" (see shit (v.)).
si Look up si at
"yes" in Italian and Spanish; from Latin sic "so" (see sic).
sialo- Look up sialo- at
before vowels sial-, word-forming element meaning "saliva," from comb. form of Greek sialon "saliva."
Siam Look up Siam at
name of Thailand before 1939 and from 1945-48, from Thai sayam, from Sanskrit syama "dark," in reference to the relative skin color of the people.
Siamese (adj.) Look up Siamese at
"of or pertaining to Siam," 1690s; see Siam + -ese. Also from 1690s as a noun meaning "native of Siam." the original Siamese twins (exhibited from 1829) were Chang and Eng (1814-1874), Thai-Chinese natives of Siam who settled in the U.S. Hence Siamesed (adj.) "joined in the manner of Siamese twins" (1830). Siamese cat is attested from 1871.
sib (n.) Look up sib at
short for sibling, attested from 1957.
Siberia Look up Siberia at
region in northwestern Asia, the name said to come from Sibir, ancient Tatar fortress at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. As a typical place of miserable banishment, it is attested from 1841. Related: Siberian.
sibilant (adj.) Look up sibilant at
1660s, from Latin sibilantem (nominative sibilans), present participle of sibilare "to hiss, whistle," possibly of imitative origin (compare Greek sizein "to hiss," Lettish sikt "to hiss," Old Church Slavonic svistati "to hiss, whistle"). Related: Sibilance; sibilation (1620s).
sibilant (n.) Look up sibilant at
"speech sound having a hissing effect," 1772, from sibilant (adj.).
sibilate (v.) Look up sibilate at
1650s, from Latin sibilatus, past participle of sibilare "to hiss, whistle" (see sibilant (adj.)). Related: Sibilated; sibilating.
sibling (n.) Look up sibling at
"brother or sister," 1903, modern revival (in anthropology) of Old English sibling "relative, kinsman," from sibb "kinship, relationship; love, friendship, peace, happiness," from Proto-Germanic *sibja- "blood relation, relative," properly "one's own" (source also of Old Saxon sibba, Old Frisian, Middle Dutch sibbe, Old High German sippa, German Sippe, Gothic sibja "kin, kindred"), from PIE *s(w)e-bh(o)- (source also of Old Church Slavonic sobistvo, Russian sob "character, individuality"), an enlargement of the root *swe- "self" (see idiom). Related to the second element in gossip.
The word 'sib' or 'sibling' is coming into use in genetics in the English-speaking world, as an equivalent of the convenient German term 'Geschwister' [E.&C. Paul, "Human Heredity," 1930]
In Old English, sibb and its compounds covered grounds of "brotherly love, familial affection" which tended later to lump into love (n.), as in sibsumnes "peace, concord, brotherly love," sibbian (v.) "bring together, reconcile," sibbecoss "kiss of peace." Sibship, however, is a modern formation (1908). Sib persisted through Middle English as a noun, adjective, and verb expressing kinship and relationship.
sibyl (n.) Look up sibyl at
"woman supposed to possess powers of prophecy, female soothsayer," c. 1200, from Old French sibile, from Latin Sibylla, from Greek Sibylla, name for any of several prophetesses consulted by ancient Greeks and Romans, of uncertain origin. Said to be from Doric Siobolla, from Attic Theoboule "divine wish."
sibylline (adj.) Look up sibylline at
1570s, from Latin sibyllinus, from sibylla (see sibyl).
sic (adv.) Look up sic at
insertion in printed quotation to call attention to error in the original; Latin, literally "so, thus, in this way," related to or emphatic of si "if," from PIE root *so- "this, that" (source also of Old English sio "she"). Used regularly in English articles from 1876, perhaps by influence of similar use in French (1872).
[I]t amounts to Yes, he did say that, or Yes, I do mean that, in spite of your natural doubts. It should be used only when doubt is natural; but reviewers & controversialists are tempted to pretend that it is, because (sic) provides them with a neat & compendious form of sneer. [Fowler]
Sic passim is "generally so throughout."
sic (v.) Look up sic at
"to set upon, attack;" see sick (v.).
sic transit gloria mundi Look up sic transit gloria mundi at
c. 1600, Latin, literally "thus passes the glory of the world;" perhaps an alteration of a passage in Thomas Á Kempis' "Imitatio Christi" (1471).
siccative (adj.) Look up siccative at
1540s, from Late Latin siccativus "drying, siccative," from Latin siccatus, past participle of siccare "to dry, make dry; dry up," from siccus "dry, thirsty; without rain," from PIE root *seikw- "to flow out" (source also of Avestan hiku- "dry," Greek iskhnos "dry, withered," Lithuanian seklus "shallow," Middle Irish sesc "dry," Sanskrit sincati "makes dry"). The noun is first recorded 1825.
sice (n.) Look up sice at
"a roll of 6 in dice," late 14c., from Old French sis, from Latin sex (see six).
Sicily Look up Sicily at
island off the southwest tip of Italy, from Latin Sicilia, from Greek Sikelia, from Sikeloi (plural) "Sicilians," from the name of an ancient people living along the Tiber, whence part of them emigrated to the island that was thereafter named for them. The Greeks distinguished Sikeliotes "a Greek colonist in Sicily" from Sikelos "a native Sicilian." Related: Sicilian.
sick (v.) Look up sick at
"to chase, set upon" (as in command sick him!), 1845, dialectal variant of seek. Used as an imperative to incite a dog to attack a person or animal; hence "cause to pursue." Related: Sicked; sicking.
sick (adj.) Look up sick at
"unwell," Old English seoc "ill, diseased, feeble, weak; corrupt; sad, troubled, deeply affected," from Proto-Germanic *seukaz, of uncertain origin. The general Germanic word (Old Norse sjukr, Danish syg, Old Saxon siok, Old Frisian siak, Middle Dutch siec, Dutch ziek, Old High German sioh, Gothic siuks "sick, ill"), but in German and Dutch displaced by krank "weak, slim," probably originally with a sense of "twisted, bent" (see crank (n.)).

Restricted meaning "having an inclination to vomit, affected with nausea" is from 1610s; sense of "tired or weary (of something), disgusted from satiety" is from 1590s; phrase sick and tired of is attested from 1783. Meaning "mentally twisted" in modern colloquial use is from 1955, a revival of the word in this sense from 1550s (sense of "spiritually or morally corrupt" was in Old English, which also had seocmod "infirm of mind"); sick joke is from 1958.
sick (n.) Look up sick at
"those who are sick," Old English seoce, from sick (adj).
sick-bay (n.) Look up sick-bay at
"forepart of a ship's main deck used as a hospital," 1580s, from sick (adj.) + bay (n.2), from the notion of a recessed space.
sicken (v.) Look up sicken at
c. 1200, "to become ill," from sick (adj.) + -en (1). Transitive sense of "to make sick" is recorded from 1610s. Related: Sickened; sickening. The earlier verb was simply sick (Old English seocan) "to be ill, fall ill."
sickening (adj.) Look up sickening at
"falling sick," 1725; "causing revulsion, disgust, or nausea," 1789, present participle adjective from sicken. Related: Sickeningly.
sickish (adj.) Look up sickish at
1580s, from sick (adj.) + -ish.
sickle (n.) Look up sickle at
Old English sicol, probably a West Germanic borrowing (Middle Dutch sickele, Dutch sikkel, Old High German sihhila, German Sichel) from Vulgar Latin *sicila, from Latin secula "sickle" (source also of Italian segolo "hatchet"), from PIE root *sek- "to cut" (see section (n.)). Applied to curved or crescent-shaped things from mid-15c. Sickle-cell anemia is first recorded 1922.
sickly (adj.) Look up sickly at
late 14c., "ill, invalid, habitually ailing," from sick (adj.) + -ly (1). Meaning "causing sickness" in any sense is from c. 1600. Related: Sickliness.
sickness (n.) Look up sickness at
Old English seocnes "sickness, disease; a disease;" see sick (adj.) and -ness. Formerly synonymous with illness; in late 19c. it began to be restricted to nausea, leaving illness as "a rather more elegant and less definite term" [Century Dictionary].
sicko (n.) Look up sicko at
1977, from sick (adj.) in the mental sense + ending as in weirdo. Sickie "a pervert" is attested from 1972; sicknik (1959) "pervert, obscene comedian" (applied to Lenny Bruce) has fad ending -nik.
siddha (n.) Look up siddha at
in Indian religion, "one who has attained perfection and bliss," 1846, from Sanskrit siddhah "accomplished, achieved, successful, possessing supernatural power, sorcerer, saint," related to sidhyati "reaches his goal, succeeds," sadhuh "right, skilled, excellent, a holy man."
side (v.) Look up side at
late 15c., "to cut into sides" (of meat), from side (n.). Meaning "to support one of the parties in a discussion, dispute, etc.," is first attested 1590s, from side (n.) in the figurative sense; earlier to hold sides (late 15c.). Related: Sided; siding.
side (n.) Look up side at
Old English side "flanks of a person, the long part or aspect of anything," from Proto-Germanic *sithon (source also of Old Saxon sida, Old Norse siða, Danish side, Swedish sida, Middle Dutch side, Dutch zidje, Old High German sita, German Seite), from adjective *sithas "long" (source of Old English sid "long, broad, spacious," Old Norse siðr "long, hanging down"), from PIE root *se- "long, late" (see soiree).

Original sense preserved in countryside. Figurative sense of "position or attitude of a person or set of persons in relation to another" (as in choosing sides) first recorded mid-13c. Meaning "one of the parties in a transaction" is from late 14c.; sense in a sporting contest or game is from 1690s. Meaning "music on one side of a phonograph record" is first attested 1936. Phrase side by side "close together and abreast" is recorded from c. 1200. Side-splitting "affecting with compulsive laughter" is attested by 1825.
side (adj.) Look up side at
late 14c., from side (n.).
side effect (n.) Look up side effect at
also side-effect, 1884, from side (adj.) + effect (n.). Medical use, with reference to drugs, is recorded from 1939.
side-dish (n.) Look up side-dish at
1725, from side (adj.) + dish (n.). Restaurant phrase on the side "apart from the main dish" is attested from 1884, American English.
side-door (n.) Look up side-door at
1530s, from side (n.) + door.
side-saddle (n.) Look up side-saddle at
"saddle made for the occupant to ride on with both feet on the same side of the horse," used chiefly by women, late 15c., from side (adj.) + saddle (n.).
side-swipe (v.) Look up side-swipe at
also sideswipe, "to strike with a glancing blow," 1904, from side (adj.) + swipe (v.). Related: Side-swiped; side-swiping. The noun is first recorded 1917.
side-table (n.) Look up side-table at
late 14c., from side (n.) + table (n.).
side-way (n.) Look up side-way at
also sideway, 1550s, lateral space for passage or movement," from side (n.) + way (n.).
sidearm (adj.) Look up sidearm at
also side-arm, 1908, from side (adj.) + arm (n.1).