sanctimony (n.) Look up sanctimony at
1530s, from Middle French sanctimonie, from Latin sanctimonia "sacredness, holiness, virtuousness," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)).
sanction (n.) Look up sanction at
early 15c., "confirmation or enactment of a law," from Latin sanctionem (nominative sanctio) "act of decreeing or ordaining," also "decree, ordinance," noun of action from past participle stem of sancire "to decree, confirm, ratify, make sacred" (see saint (n.)). Originally especially of ecclesiastical decrees.
sanction (v.) Look up sanction at
1778, "confirm by sanction, make valid or binding;" 1797 as "to permit authoritatively;" from sanction (n.). Seemingly contradictory meaning "impose a penalty on" is from 1956 but is rooted in an old legalistic sense of the noun. Related: Sanctioned; sanctioning.
sanctions (n.) Look up sanctions at
in international diplomacy, 1919, plural of sanction (n.) in the sense of "part or clause of a law which spells out the penalty for breaking it" (1650s).
sanctitude (n.) Look up sanctitude at
mid-15c., from Latin sanctitudinem (nominative sanctitudo) "sacredness," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)).
sanctity (n.) Look up sanctity at
late 14c., from Old French sanctete (Modern French sainteté), from Latin sanctitatem (nominative sanctitas) "holiness, sacredness," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)).
sanctuary (n.) Look up sanctuary at
early 14c., "building set apart for holy worship," from Anglo-French sentuarie, Old French saintuaire "sacred relic, holy thing; reliquary, sanctuary," from Late Latin sanctuarium "a sacred place, shrine" (especially the Hebrew Holy of Holies; see sanctum), also "a private room," from Latin sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)).

Since the time of Constantine and by medieval Church law, fugitives or debtors enjoyed immunity from arrest in certain churches, hence transferred sense of "immunity from punishment" (late 14c.). Exceptions were made in England in cases of treason and sacrilege. General (non-ecclesiastical) sense of "place of refuge or protection" is attested from 1560s; as "land set aside for wild plants or animals to breed and live" it is recorded from 1879.
sanctum (n.) Look up sanctum at
1570s, "holy place of the Jewish tabernacle," from Latin sanctum "a holy place," as in Late Latin sanctum sanctorum "holy of holies" (translating Greek to hagion ton hagiou, translating Hebrew qodesh haqqodashim), from neuter of sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)). In English, sanctum sanctorum attested from c. 1400; in sense of "a person's private retreat" from 1706.
Sanctus (n.) Look up Sanctus at
late 14c., Latin, initial word of the "angelic hymn" (Isaiah vi.3), concluding the preface of the Eucharist, literally "holy" (see saint (n.)). It renders Hebrew qadhosh in the hymn.
sand (v.) Look up sand at
late 14c., "to sprinkle with sand," from sand (n.); from 1620s as "to bury or fill in with sand." Meaning "to grind or polish with sand" is from 1858. Related: Sanded; sanding.
sand (n.) Look up sand at
Old English sand, from Proto-Germanic *sandam (source also of Old Norse sandr, Old Frisian sond, Middle Dutch sant, Dutch zand, German Sand), from PIE *bhs-amadho- (source also of Greek psammos "sand;" Latin sabulum "coarse sand," source of Italian sabbia, French sable), suffixed form of root *bhes- "to rub."

Historically, the line between sand and gravel cannot be distinctly drawn. Used figuratively in Old English in reference to innumerability and instability. General Germanic, but not attested in Gothic, which used in this sense malma, related to Old High German melm "dust," the first element of the Swedish city name Malmö (the second element meaning "island"), and to Latin molere "to grind." Metaphoric for "innumerability" since Old English. Sand dollar, type of flat sea-urchin, so called from 1884, so called for its shape; sand dune attested from 1830.
sand-blast (v.) Look up sand-blast at
1878 (implied in sand-blasted), from sand (n.) + blast (v.). Related: Sand-blasting.
sand-castle (n.) Look up sand-castle at
1838, from sand (n.) + castle (n.).
sand-fly (n.) Look up sand-fly at
1748, from sand (n.) + fly (n.).
sand-lot (n.) Look up sand-lot at
also sandlot, "plot of empty land in a town or suburb," 1878, from sand (n.) + lot. In reference to the kind of sports or games played on them by amateurs, it is recorded from 1890, American English.
sand-trap (n.) Look up sand-trap at
1838, "device for filtering out impurities," from sand (n.) + trap (n.). As "a golf bunker" from 1906.
sandal (n.) Look up sandal at
type of shoe, late 14c., from Old French sandale, from Latin sandalium "a slipper, sandal," from Greek sandalion, diminutive of sandalon "sandal," of unknown origin, perhaps from Persian. Related: Sandals.
sandalwood (n.) Look up sandalwood at
1510s, earlier sandell (c. 1400), saundres (early 14c.), from Old French sandale, from Medieval Latin sandalum, from Late Greek santalon, ultimately from Sanskrit čandana-m "the sandalwood tree," perhaps literally "wood for burning incense," related to candrah "shining, glowing," and cognate with Latin candere "to shine, glow" (see candle).
sandbag (n.) Look up sandbag at
1580s, from sand (n.) + bag (n.).
sandbag (v.) Look up sandbag at
1860, "furnish with sandbags," from sandbag (n.). Meaning "pretend weakness," 1970s perhaps is extended from poker-playing sense of "refrain from raising at the first opportunity in hopes of raising more steeply later" (1940), which perhaps is from sandbagger in the sense of "bully or ruffian who uses a sandbag as a weapon to knock his intended victim unconscious" (1882). Hence "to fell or stun with a blow from a sandbag" (1887). Related: Sandbagged; sandbagging.
sandbar (n.) Look up sandbar at
1755, from sand (n.) + bar (n.1).
sandblind (adj.) Look up sandblind at
also sand-blind, "half-blind," c. 1400, probably altered (by influence of sand) from Old English *samblind, the first element from West Germanic *sami-, from PIE *semi- (see semi-); compare Old English samlæred "half-taught, badly instructed," samstorfen "half-dead."
sandbox (n.) Look up sandbox at
also sand-box, 1570s as an instrument to sprinkle sand, from sand (n.) + box (n.1). From 1680s as "a box holding sand;" 1891 as a low-sided sand pit for children's play.
sanderling (n.) Look up sanderling at
wading bird (Crocethia alba), c. 1600, probably from sand (n.) + diminutive suffix -ling, but OED suggests possible derivation from Old English *sand-yrðling, with second element yrðling "plowman" (literally "earthling").
sandiness (n.) Look up sandiness at
1640s, from sandy + -ness.
Sandinista (n.) Look up Sandinista at
member of a Nicaraguan revolutionary group, 1928, from Spanish, from name of Augusto César Sandino (1893-1934), Nicaraguan nationalist leader; the modern organization of this name was founded in 1963. Related: Sandanistas.
sandman (n.) Look up sandman at
bringer of sleep in nursery lore, 1861, from sand (n.) in reference to hard grains found in the eyelashes on waking; first attested in a translation from the Norwegian of Andersen (his Ole Lukoie "Ole Shut-eye," about a being who makes children sleepy, came out 1842), and perhaps partly from German Sandmann. More common in U.S.; dustman with the same sense is attested from 1821.
sandpaper (n.) Look up sandpaper at
also sand-paper, 1788, from sand (n.) + paper (n.).
sandpaper (v.) Look up sandpaper at
1835, from sandpaper (n.). Related: Sandpapered; sandpapering.
sandpiper (n.) Look up sandpiper at
1670s, from sand (n.) + piper.
Sandra Look up Sandra at
fem. proper name, originally short for Alexandra. Little used before c. 1920; a top-20 name for girls born in the U.S. 1938-1967.
sandspit (n.) Look up sandspit at
1854, from sand (n.) + spit (n.).
sandstone (n.) Look up sandstone at
1660s, from sand (n.) + stone (n.). So called from its composition.
sandwich (v.) Look up sandwich at
1841, from sandwich (n.), on the image of the stuff between the identical pieces of bread. Related: Sandwiched; sandwiching.
sandwich (n.) Look up sandwich at
1762, said to be a reference to John Montagu (1718-1792), Fourth Earl Sandwich, who was said to be an inveterate gambler who ate slices of cold meat between bread at the gaming table during marathon sessions rather than get up for a proper meal (this account dates to 1770). It was in his honor that Cook named the Hawaiian islands (1778) when Montagu was first lord of the Admiralty. The family name is from the place in Kent, Old English Sandwicæ, literally "sandy harbor (or trading center)." For pronunciation, see cabbage. Sandwich board, one carried before and one behind, is from 1864.
sandy (adj.) Look up sandy at
Old English sandig "of the nature of sand;" see sand (n.) + -y (2). Meaning "of yellowish-red hue" (in reference to hair) is from 1520s.
Sandy (n.) Look up Sandy at
late 15c. as a nickname for Alexander; as the typical name for a Scotsman from 1785, also drawing on the hair-color sense of sandy (adj.). Also Sawney, and with diminutive form Saunder preserved in surnames.
sane (adj.) Look up sane at
1721, back-formation from sanity or else from Latin sanus "sound, healthy," in figurative or transferred use, "of sound mind, rational, sane," also, of style, "correct;" of uncertain origin. Used earlier, of the body, with the sense of "healthy" (1620s). Related: Sanely.
sang Look up sang at
past tense of sing.
sang-froid (n.) Look up sang-froid at
"presence of mind, composure," 1712, from French sang froid, literally "cool blood," from sang "blood" (from Latin sanguis; see sanguinary) + froid "cold" (from Latin frigidus; see frigid).
sangha Look up sangha at
1858, from Hindi sangha, Sanskrit samgha, from sam "together" (from PIE root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with") + han "to come in contact."
sangrail (n.) Look up sangrail at
"the Holy Grail," mid-15c., from Old French Saint Graal, literally "Holy Grail" (see saint (n.) + grail).
sangria (n.) Look up sangria at
cold drink made from sweetened and diluted red wine, 1954, from Spanish, literally "bleeding," from sangre "blood," from Vulgar Latin sanguem, from Latin sanguis (see sanguinary). The drink so named for its color. Earlier as sangre (1736).
sanguinary (adj.) Look up sanguinary at
"characterized by slaughter," 1620s, possibly from French sanguinaire, or directly from Latin sanguinarius "pertaining to blood," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood," of unknown origin. Latin distinguished sanguis, the generic word, from cruor "blood from a wound." The latter word is related to Greek kreas "meat," Sanskrit kravis- "raw flesh," Old English hreaw- "raw" (see raw).
sanguine (adj.) Look up sanguine at
"blood-red," late 14c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French sanguin (fem. sanguine), from Latin sanguineus "of blood," also "bloody, bloodthirsty," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Meaning "cheerful, hopeful, confident" first attested c. 1500, because these qualities were thought in medieval physiology to spring from an excess of blood as one of the four humors. Also in Middle English as a noun, "type of red cloth" (early 14c.).
sanguineous (adj.) Look up sanguineous at
"pertaining to blood," 1510s, from Latin sanguineus, from sanguin-, stem of sanguis (see sanguinary).
sanguinity (n.) Look up sanguinity at
late 15c., "consanguinity;" see sanguine + -ity. Meaning "quality of being sanguine" is from 1737.
sanguinivorous (adj.) Look up sanguinivorous at
"blood-drinking," 1821, from Latin sanguis "blood" (see sanguinary) + -vorous.
sanguinous (adj.) Look up sanguinous at
late 15c., "bloodshot," from Middle French sanguineux, from Late Latin sanguinosus "full of blood," from Latin sanguis "blood" (see sanguinary). Meaning "pertaining to blood" is from 1813.
sanhedrim (n.) Look up sanhedrim at
1580s, from Late Hebrew sanhedrin (gedola) "(great) council," from Greek synedrion "assembly, council," literally "sitting together," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + hedra "seat," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Abolished at the destruction of Jerusalem, C.E. 70. The proper form is sanhedrin; the error began as a false correction when the Greek word was taken into Mishanic Hebrew, where -in is a form of the plural suffix of which -im is the more exact form.