slog (n.)
1846, "a hard hit," from slog (v.). Sense of "spell of hard work" is from 1888.
slogan (n.)
1670s, earlier slogorne (1510s), "battle cry," from Gaelic sluagh-ghairm "battle cry used by Scottish Highland or Irish clans," from sluagh "army, host, slew," from Celtic and Balto-Slavic *slough- "help, service." Second element is gairm "a cry" (see garrulous). Metaphoric sense of "distinctive word or phrase used by a political or other group" is first attested 1704.
sloganeer (v.)
1941, from noun (1922), from slogan + -eer. Earlier verb was sloganize (1909). Related: Sloganeering.
sloop (n.)
"small fore and aft rigged vessel with one mast, generally carrying a jib, fore-stay sail, mainsail, and gaff-topsail," 1620s, from Dutch sloep "a sloop;" probably from French chaloupe, from Old French chalupe "small, sloop-rigged vessel," which is perhaps related to English shallop [OED]. But according to Barnhart and Watkins the Dutch word might simply be from Middle Dutch slupen "to glide," from PIE *sleubh- (see sleeve). In old military use, a small ship of war carrying guns on the upper deck only (1670s).
slop (n.)
c.1400, "mudhole," probably from Old English -sloppe "dung" (in plant name cusloppe, literally "cow dung"), related to slyppe "slime" (see slip (v.)). Meaning "semiliquid food" first recorded 1650s; that of "refuse liquid of any kind, household liquid waste" (usually slops) is from 1815. Meaning "affected or sentimental material" is from 1866.
slop (n.2)
late 14c., "loose outer garment," probably from Middle Dutch slop, of uncertain origin, corresponding to words in Old Norse and perhaps in Old English. Sense extended generally to "clothing, ready-made clothing" (1660s), usually in plural slops. Hence, also, slop-shop "shop where ready-made clothes are sold" (1723).
slop (v.)
"to spill carelessly" (transitive), 1550s, from slop (n.1). Intransitive sense from 1746. Related: Slopped; slopping.
slope (n.)
1610s, "inclination," from slope (v.). Meaning "an incline, a slant (of ground)" is from 1620s. Derogatory slang meaning "Oriental person" is attested from 1948.
slope (v.)
1590s, "go in an oblique direction," from earlier adjective meaning "slanting" (c.1500), probably from Middle English aslope (adv.) "on the incline" (late 15c.), from Old English *aslopen, past participle of aslupan "to slip away," from a- "away" + slupan "to slip" (see sleeve). From 1709 as "to be in a slanting position;" transitive sense "place in a slanting position" is from c.1600. Related: Sloped; sloping.
sloppy (adj.)
1727, "muddy," from slop (n.1) + -y (2). Meaning "loose, ill-fitting, slovenly" is first recorded 1825, influenced by slop (n.2). Related: Sloppily; sloppiness. Sloppy Joe was originally "loose-fitting sweater worn by girls" (1942); as a name for a kind of spiced hamburger, it is attested from 1961.
slosh (n.)
1814, "slush, sludge, a watery mess," probably a blend of slush and slop (n.1) in its Middle English sense of "muddy place."
slosh (v.)
"to splash about in mud or wet," 1844, from slosh (n.). Meaning "to pour carelessly" is recorded from 1875. Related: Sloshed; sloshing.
sloshed (adj.)
"drunk," c.1900, colloquial, past participle adjective from slosh (v.).
slot (n.1)
late 14c., "hollow at the base of the throat above the breastbone," from Old French esclot "hoofprint of a deer or horse," of uncertain origin, probably from Old Norse sloð "trail" (see sleuth). Original sense is rare or obsolete in Modern English; sense of "narrow opening into which something else can be fitted" is first recorded 1520s. Meaning "middle of the (semi-circular) copy desk at a newspaper," the spot occupied by the chief sub-editor, is recorded from 1917. The sense of "opening in a machine for a coin to be inserted" is from 1888 (slot machine first attested 1891). The sense of "position in a list" is first recorded 1942; verb sense of "designate, appoint" is from 1960s. Slot car first attested 1966.
slot (n.2)
"bar or bolt used to fasten a door, window, etc.," c.1300, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German slot (compare Old Norse slot, Old High German sloz, German Schloss "bolt, bar, lock, castle;" Old Saxon slutil "key," Dutch slot "a bolt, lock, castle"), from Proto-Germanic stem *slut- "to close" (cognates: Old Frisian sluta, Dutch sluiten, Old High German sliozan, German schliessen "to shut, close, bolt, lock"), from PIE root *klau- "hook, peg" (cognates: Greek kleis "key;" Latin claudere "to shut, close," clavis "key," clavus "nail;" see close (v.)). Wooden pegs seem to have been the original keys.
slot (v.2)
1560s, "to bolt a door," from slot (n.2). Related: Slotted; slotting.
slot (v.1)
1747, "provide with a slot, cut slots in," from slot (n.1). Meaning "drop a coin in a slot" is from 1888. Sense of "take a position in a slot" is from 1940; that of "fit (something) into a slot" is from 1966. Oldest sense is obsolete: "stab in the base of the throat" (c.1400). Related: Slotted; slotting.
sloth (n.)
late 12c., "indolence, sluggishness," formed from Middle English slou, slowe (see slow (adj.)) + abstract formative -th (2). Replaced Old English slæwð "sloth, indolence." Sense of "slowness, tardiness" is from mid-14c. As one of the deadly sins, it translates Latin accidia.

The slow-moving mammal first so called 1610s, a translation of Portuguese preguiça "slowness, slothfulness," from Latin pigritia "laziness" (compare Spanish perezosa "slothful," also "the sloth").
slothful (adj.)
c.1400, from sloth + -ful. Related: Slothfully; slothfulness. For the latter, Middle English also had sloth-head (c.1300), with Middle English -hede, cognate with -hood.
slouch (v.)
"walk with a slouch," 1754; "have a downcast or stooped aspect," 1755; from slouch (n.). Related: Slouched; slouching (1610s as a past participle adjective; 1660s of persons, 1690s of hats).
slouch (n.)
1510s, "lazy man," variant of slouk (1560s), probably from a Scandinavian source, perhaps Old Norse slokr "lazy fellow," and related to slack (adj.) on the notion of "sagging, drooping." Meaning "stooping of the head and shoulders" first recorded 1725. Slouch hat, made of soft material, first attested 1764.
slouchy (adj.)
1690s, from slouch + -y (2). Related: Slouchily; slouchiness.
slough (n.1)
"muddy place," Old English sloh "soft, muddy ground," of uncertain origin. Compare Middle Low German sloch "muddy place," Middle High German sluoche "ditch." Figurative use (of moral sunkenness or Bunyan's "Slough of Despond," 1678) attested from mid-13c.
slough (v.)
"to cast off" (as the skin of a snake or other animal), 1720, originally of diseased tissue, from Middle English noun slough "shed skin of a snake" (see slough (n.)). Related: Sloughed; sloughing.
slough (n.2)
"cast-off skin" (of a snake or other animal), early 14c., slughe, slouh, probably related to Old Saxon sluk "skin of a snake," Middle High German sluch "snakeskin, wineskin," Middle Low German slu "husk, peel, skin," German Schlauch "wineskin;" from Proto-Germanic *sluk-, of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *sleug- "to glide."
Slovak
1829 (n.), 1887 (adj.), from French Slovak, from the people's own name (compare Slovak and Czech Slovak, plural Slovaci; Polish Słowak; Russian Slovak; German Slowake). Related: Slovakian.
sloven (n.)
late 15c., "immoral woman," later (16c.) also "rascal, knave" (regardless of gender); probably from a continental Germanic source, compare Middle Flemish sloovin "a scold," sloef "untidy, shabby," Dutch slof "careless, negligent," Middle Low German sloven "put on clothes carelessly," from Proto-Germanic *slaubjan, from PIE *sleubh- "to slide, slip" (see sleeve). Meaning "person careless of dress or negligent of cleanliness" is from 1520s. Also see slut.
Slovene (n.)
Slavic people of Carinthia and Styria, 1883, from German Slowene, from Slovenec, the people's own name, originally literally "Slav." A survival of the old native designation of the Slavic people, compare Old Church Slavonic Slovene. Related: Slovenian.
slovenly (adj.)
1510s, "low, base, lewd," later "untidy, dirty" (1560s), from sloven + -ly (1). Related: Slovenliness; also in this sense was slovenry (1540s), which OED reports in common use early 17c.
slow (adj.)
Old English slaw "inactive, sluggish, torpid, lazy," also "not clever," from Proto-Germanic *slæwaz (cognates: Old Saxon sleu "blunt, dull," Middle Dutch slee, Dutch sleeuw "sour, tart, blunt," Old High German sleo "blunt, dull," Old Norse sljor, Danish sløv, Swedish slö "blunt, dull"). Meaning "taking a long time" is attested from early 13c. Meaning "dull, tedious" is from 1841. As an adverb c.1500. The slows "imaginary disease to account for lethargy" is from 1843.
slow (v.)
1550s, "make slower;" 1590s, "go slower," from slow (adj.). Related: Slowed; slowing. Old English had slawian (intransitive) "to be or become slow, be sluggish," but the modern use appears to be a 16c. re-formation.
slowdown (n.)
also slow-down, 1892, "act of going more slowly," from verbal phrase; see slow (v.) + down (adv.).
slowly (adv.)
Old English slawlice "slowly, sluggishly;" see slow (adj.) + -ly (2).
slowness (n.)
c.1300, from slow (adj.) + -ness.
slowpoke (n.)
also slow poke, 1848, American English from slow (adj.) + poke (n.3), the name of a device, like a yoke with a pole, attached to domestic animals such as pigs and sheep to keep them from escaping enclosures. Bartlett (1859) calls it "a woman's word."
slubberdegullion (n.)
"a slobbering or dirty fellow, a worthless sloven," 1610s, from slubber "to daub, smear; behave carelessly or negligently" (1520s), probably from Dutch or Low German (compare slobber (v.)). Second element appears to be an attempt to imitate French; or perhaps it is French, related to Old French goalon "a sloven." Century Dictionary speculates the -de- means "insignificant" or else is from hobbledehoy.
sludge (n.)
"mud, mire, ooze," 1640s, of uncertain origin, possibly a variant of Middle English slutch "mud, mire," or a variant of slush (n.).
sluff (v.)
"avoid work," 1951 slang variant of slough (v.).
slug (n.1)
"shell-less land snail," 1704, originally "lazy person" (early 15c.); related to sluggard.
slug (n.2)
"lead bit," 1620s, perhaps a special use of slug (n.1), perhaps on some supposed resemblance. Meaning "token or counterfeit coin" first recorded 1881; meaning "strong drink" first recorded 1756, perhaps from slang fire a slug "take a drink," though it also may be related to Irish slog "swallow." Journalism sense is from 1925, originally a short guideline for copy editors at the head of a story.
slug (n.3)
"a hard blow," 1830, dialectal, of uncertain origin; perhaps related to slaughter or perhaps a secondary form of slay.
slug (v.)
"deliver a hard blow with the fist," 1862, from slug (n.3). Related: Slugged; slugging. Slugging-match is from 1878.
slug-a-bed (n.)
also slugabed, 1590s, with bed (n.) + obsolete verb slug "be lazy, intert" (early 15c.), which is perhaps from Scandinavian (see sluggard).
slugfest (n.)
1910, originally in reference to baseball, from slug (n.3) + -fest.
sluggard (n.)
late 14c., late 13c. as a surname, "habitually lazy person," from Middle English sluggi "sluggish, indolent," probably from a Scandinavian word such as dialectal Norwegian slugga "be sluggish," dialectal Norwegian sluggje "heavy, slow person," dialectal Swedish slogga "to be slow or sluggish." Adjective sluggy is attested in English from early 13c.
'Tis the voice of a sluggard -- I heard him complain:
"You have wak'd me too soon, I must slumber again."
[Isaac Watts, 1674-1748]



'Tis the voice of the Lobster: I heard him declare
"You have baked me too brown, I must sugar my hair."
["Lewis Carroll" (Charles L. Dodgson), 1832-1898]
As an adjective meaning "sluggish, lazy" from 1590s. Related: Sluggardly.
slugger (n.)
1877, originally in baseball, agent noun from slug (v.). Meaning "one who hits with the fists" is from 1883.
sluggish (adj.)
mid-15c., from Middle English slugge "lazy person" (see sluggard) + -ish. Earlier adjective was sluggi (early 13c.). Related: Sluggishly; sluggishness.
sluice (n.)
c.1400, earlier scluse (mid-14c.), a shortening of Old French escluse "sluice, floodgate" (Modern French écluse), from Late Latin exclusa "barrier to shut out water" (in aqua exclusa "water shut out," i.e. separated from the river), from fem. singular of Latin exclusus, past participle of excludere "to shut out" (see exclude).
sluice (v.)
1590s, from sluice (n.). Related: Sluiced; sluicing.
slum (n.)
1845, from back slum "dirty back alley of a city, street of poor or low people" (1825), originally a slang or cant word meaning "room," especially "back room" (1812), of unknown origin, pastime popularized by East End novels. Related: slums. Slumscape is from 1947.