sandspit (n.) Look up sandspit at
1854, from sand (n.) + spit (n.).
sandstone (n.) Look up sandstone at
1660s, from sand (n.) + stone (n.). So called from its composition.
sandwich (n.) Look up sandwich at
1762, said to be a reference to John Montagu (1718-1792), Fourth Earl Sandwich, who was said to be an inveterate gambler who ate slices of cold meat between bread at the gaming table during marathon sessions rather than get up for a proper meal (this account dates to 1770). It was in his honor that Cook named the Hawaiian islands (1778) when Montagu was first lord of the Admiralty. The family name is from the place in Kent, Old English Sandwicæ, literally "sandy harbor (or trading center)." For pronunciation, see cabbage. Sandwich board, one carried before and one behind, is from 1864.
sandwich (v.) Look up sandwich at
1841, from sandwich (n.), on the image of the stuff between the identical pieces of bread. Related: Sandwiched; sandwiching.
sandy (adj.) Look up sandy at
Old English sandig "of the nature of sand;" see sand (n.) + -y (2). Meaning "of yellowish-red hue" (in reference to hair) is from 1520s.
Sandy (n.) Look up Sandy at
late 15c. as a nickname for Alexander; as the typical name for a Scotsman from 1785, also drawing on the hair-color sense of sandy (adj.). Also Sawney, and with diminutive form Saunder preserved in surnames.
sane (adj.) Look up sane at
1721, back-formation from sanity or else from Latin sanus "sound, healthy," in figurative or transferred use, "of sound mind, rational, sane," also, of style, "correct;" of uncertain origin. Used earlier, of the body, with the sense of "healthy" (1620s). Related: Sanely.
sang Look up sang at
past tense of sing.
sang-froid (n.) Look up sang-froid at
"presence of mind, composure," 1712, from French sang froid, literally "cool blood," from sang "blood" (from Latin sanguis; see sanguinary) + froid "cold" (from Latin frigidus; see frigid).
sangha Look up sangha at
1858, from Hindi sangha, Sanskrit samgha, from sam "together" + han "to come in contact."
sangrail (n.) Look up sangrail at
"the Holy Grail," mid-15c., from Old French Saint Graal, literally "Holy Grail" (see saint (n.) + grail).
sangria (n.) Look up sangria at
cold drink made from sweetened and diluted red wine, 1954, from Spanish, literally "bleeding," from sangre "blood," from Vulgar Latin sanguem, from Latin sanguis (see sanguinary). The drink so named for its color. Earlier as sangre (1736).
sanguinary (adj.) Look up sanguinary at
"characterized by slaughter," 1620s, possibly from French sanguinaire, or directly from Latin sanguinarius "pertaining to blood," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood," of unknown origin. Latin distinguished sanguis, the generic word, from cruor "blood from a wound." The latter word is related to Greek kreas "meat," Sanskrit kravis- "raw flesh," Old English hreaw- "raw" (see raw).
sanguine (adj.) Look up sanguine at
"blood-red," late 14c. (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French sanguin (fem. sanguine), from Latin sanguineus "of blood," also "bloody, bloodthirsty," from sanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood" (see sanguinary). Meaning "cheerful, hopeful, confident" first attested c. 1500, because these qualities were thought in medieval physiology to spring from an excess of blood as one of the four humors. Also in Middle English as a noun, "type of red cloth" (early 14c.).
sanguineous (adj.) Look up sanguineous at
"pertaining to blood," 1510s, from Latin sanguineus, from sanguin-, stem of sanguis (see sanguinary).
sanguinity (n.) Look up sanguinity at
late 15c., "consanguinity;" see sanguine + -ity. Meaning "quality of being sanguine" is from 1737.
sanguinivorous (adj.) Look up sanguinivorous at
"blood-drinking," 1821, from Latin sanguis "blood" (see sanguinary) + -vorous.
sanguinous (adj.) Look up sanguinous at
late 15c., "bloodshot," from Middle French sanguineux, from Late Latin sanguinosus "full of blood," from Latin sanguis "blood" (see sanguinary). Meaning "pertaining to blood" is from 1813.
sanhedrim (n.) Look up sanhedrim at
1580s, from Late Hebrew sanhedrin (gedola) "(great) council," from Greek synedrion "assembly, council," literally "sitting together," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + hedra "seat" (see cathedral). Abolished at the destruction of Jerusalem, C.E. 70. The proper form is sanhedrin; the error began as a false correction when the Greek word was taken into Mishanic Hebrew, where -in is a form of the plural suffix of which -im is the more exact form.
sanhedrin (n.) Look up sanhedrin at
see sanhedrim.
sanitarium (n.) Look up sanitarium at
1829, literally "place dedicated to health," from neuter of Modern Latin *sanitarius, from Latin sanitas "health," from sanus "healthy; sane" (see sane). Compare sanatarium.
sanitary (adj.) Look up sanitary at
1823, "pertaining to health," from French sanitaire (1812), from Latin sanitas "health," from sanus "healthy; sane" (see sane). In reference to menstrual pads, first attested 1881 (in sanitary towel).
sanitation (n.) Look up sanitation at
1848, irregularly formed from sanitary. Figurative use from 1934. As a euphemism for garbage (as in sanitation engineer) first recorded 1939.
sanitize (v.) Look up sanitize at
1836, from stem of sanitary + -ize. Metaphoric sense is from 1934. Related: Sanitized; sanitizing.
sanitizer (n.) Look up sanitizer at
1950, agent noun from sanitize.
sanity (n.) Look up sanity at
early 15c., "healthy condition," from Middle French sanité "health," from Latin sanitatem (nominative sanitas) "health, sanity," from sanus "healthy; sane" (see sane). Meaning "soundness of mind" first attested c. 1600.
sank Look up sank at
past tense of sink (q.v.).
Sanka (n.) Look up Sanka at
brand of decaffeinated coffee, by 1913, abstracted from French sans caffeine (see sans + caffeine).
sans (adv.) Look up sans at
early 14c., from French sans, Old French sen, sens (with adverbial genitive) "without, except, apart, not counting," cognate with Provençal senes, Old Catalan senes, Old Spanish sen (Spanish sin), Old Italian sen, from Vulgar Latin *sene, from Latin sine "without," enlarged form of sed, se "without," from PIE root *sen(e)- "apart, separated" (see sunder). In reference to fonts, 1927, short for sans-serif.
sans souci (adv.) Look up sans souci at
"without care or concern," French. Name of Frederick the Great's royal palace at Potsdam.
sans-culotte (n.) Look up sans-culotte at
also sansculotte, "lower-class republican of the French Revolution," 1790, from French, literally "without breeches;" see sans + culottes. Usually explained as referring to the class whose distinctive costume was pantalons (long trousers) as opposed to the upper classes, which wore culottes (knee-breeches), but this is not certain. Related: Sans-culottes; sans-culotterie.
sans-serif Look up sans-serif at
also sanserif, 1830, from French sans "without" (see sans) + English serif, from earlier ceref, perhaps from Dutch schreef "a line, a stroke," related to schrijven "to write," from Latin scribere (see script (n.)).
sansei (n.) Look up sansei at
"American born of nisei parents; third-generation Japanese-American," 1945, from Japanese san "three, third" + sei "generation."
Sanskrit (n.) Look up Sanskrit at
1610s, from Sanskrit samskrtam "put together, well-formed, perfected," neuter of samskrta, from sam "together" (see same) + krta- "to make, do, perform," from PIE *kwer- "to make, form" (see terato-). "so called as being the cultivated or literary language, distinguished from the vulgar dialects, or, some say, because regarded as a perfect language, the speech of the gods, formed by infallible rules" [Century Dictionary].
Santa (n.) Look up Santa at
1893 as a shortened form of Santa Claus.
Santa Claus (n.) Look up Santa Claus at
1773 (as St. A Claus, in "New York Gazette"), American English, from dialectal Dutch Sante Klaas, from Middle Dutch Sinter Niklaas "Saint Nicholas," bishop of Asia Minor who became a patron saint for children. Now a worldwide phenomenon (Japanese santakurosu). Father Christmas is attested from 1650s.
santeria (n.) Look up santeria at
Afro-Cuban religion, 1950, from Spanish, literally "holiness, sanctity."
sap (n.1) Look up sap at
"liquid in a plant," Old English sæpm from Proto-Germanic *sapam (cognates: Middle Low German, Middle Dutch, Dutch sap, Old High German saf, German Saft "juice"), from PIE root *sab- "juice, fluid" (cognates: Sanskrit sabar- "sap, milk, nectar," Latin sapere "to taste," Irish sug, Russian soku "sap," Lithuanian sakas "tree-gum"). As a verb meaning "To drain the sap from," 1725.
sap (n.2) Look up sap at
"simpleton," 1815, originally especially in Scottish and English schoolboy slang, probably from earlier sapskull (1735), saphead (1798), from sap as a shortened form of sapwood "soft wood between the inner bark and the heartwood" (late 14c.), from sap (n.1) + wood (n.); so called because it conducts the sap; compare sappy.
sap (v.1) Look up sap at
"dig a trench toward the enemy's position," 1590s, from Middle French saper, from sappe "spade," from Late Latin sappa "spade" (source also of Italian zappa, Spanish zapa "spade"). Extended sense "weaken or destroy insidiously" is from 1755, probably influenced by the verb form of sap (n.1), on the notion of "draining the vital sap from." Related: Sapped; sapping.
sap (v.2) Look up sap at
"hit with a sap," 1926, from sap (n.3). Related: Sapped; sapping.
sap (n.3) Look up sap at
"club, stick for hitting," 1899, from shortening of sapwood (see sap (n.2)) or sapling.
sapid (adj.) Look up sapid at
1630s, from Latin sapidus "savory, having a taste," from sapere (see sapient). Its opposite is insipid.
sapience (n.) Look up sapience at
late 14c., "wisdom, understanding," from Old French sapience, from Latin sapientia "good taste, good sense, discernment; intelligence, wisdom," from sapiens (see sapient).
sapient (adj.) Look up sapient at
"wise," late 15c. (early 15c. as a surname), from Old French sapient, from Latin sapientem (nominative sapiens), present participle of sapere "to taste, have taste, be wise," from PIE root *sep- (1) "to taste, perceive" (cognates: Old Saxon an-sebban "to perceive, remark," Old High German antseffen, Old English sefa "mind, understanding, insight").
sapling (n.) Look up sapling at
early 14c., from sap (n.1) + diminutive suffix -ling. This probably is the source of American English slang sap (n.3) "club, short staff" (1899) and the verb sap (v.2) "to hit (someone) with a sap" (1926).
saponification (n.) Look up saponification at
1801, from French saponification, from saponifier, from Modern Latin saponificare, from sapon- "soap" (see soap (n.)) + -ficare, from Latin facere "to make, do" (see factitious).
saponify (v.) Look up saponify at
1821, from French saponifier (see saponification). Related: Saponified; saponifying.
sapper (n.) Look up sapper at
1620s, in a military context, "soldier employed in building fortifications," agent noun from sap (v.1).
Sapphic (adj.) Look up Sapphic at
c. 1500, "of or pertaining to Sappho," from French saphique, from Latin Sapphicus, from Greek Sapphikos "of Sappho," in reference to Sappho, poetess of the isle of Lesbos c. 600 B.C.E. Especially in reference to her characteristic meter; sense of "pertaining to sexual relations between women" is from 1890s (compare lesbian).