soteriology (n.) Look up soteriology at
1847, in reference to health; 1864 in reference to salvation, from German soteriologie, from Greek soteria "preservation, salvation," from soizein "save, preserve," related to sos "safe, healthy," of uncertain origin (perhaps from PIE root *teue- "to swell"). With -ology.
Sothic (adj.) Look up Sothic at
as in Sothic cycle, a period of 1,460 years, 1828, from French Sothique, from Greek Sothis, an Egyptian name of the star Sirius. The Sothic year is determined by the heliacal rising of Sirius.
sottish (adj.) Look up sottish at
1560s, "foolish," from sot (-) + -ish. From 1630s as "drunken." Related: sottishly; sottishness.
sotto voce Look up sotto voce at
1737, Italian, literally "under voice," from sotto, from Latin subtus "below" (source also of French sous; see sub-) + voce, from Latin vocem (nominative vox) "voice, sound, utterance," from PIE root *wekw- "to speak."
sou (n.) Look up sou at
small French coin, 1550s, back-formation from sous, plural of Old French soul, formerly a coin worth one-twentieth of a livre, from Latin solidus (see solidus).
soubrette (n.) Look up soubrette at
1753, theatrical jargon word for lady's maid characters in plays and operas, who typically were pert, flirtatious, and intriguing, from French soubrette, from Provençal soubreto "affected, conceited," fem. of soubret "coy, reserved," from soubra "to set aside," originally "to exceed," from Old Provençal sobrar, from Latin superare "to rise above, overcome," from super "over, above, beyond" (from PIE root *uper "over").
souffle (n.) Look up souffle at
light dish, sometimes savory but usually sweet, 1813, from French soufflé, noun use of past participle of souffler "to puff up," from Latin sufflare, from sub "under, up from under" (see sub-) + flare "to blow" (from PIE root *bhle- "to blow").
souffre-douleur (n.) Look up souffre-douleur at
1845, French, literally "suffer sorrow;" one who is in a subservient position and must listen to or share another's troubles, specifically "a woman who acts as a paid companion to an older woman."
sough (v.) Look up sough at
"to make a moaning or murmuring sound," Old English swogan "to sound, roar, howl, rustle, whistle," from Proto-Germanic *swoganan (source also of Old Saxon swogan "to rustle," Gothic gaswogjan "to sigh"), from PIE imitative root *(s)wagh- (source also of Greek echo, Latin vagire "to cry, roar, sound"). The noun is late 14c., from the verb.
sought Look up sought at
past tense and past participle of seek, from Old English sohte. Sought-after is from 1881 (sought-for in same sense is from c. 1600).
souk (n.) Look up souk at
Arab bazaar, 1826, from French souk, from Arabic suq "marketplace."
soul (n.2) Look up soul at
"instinctive quality felt by black persons as an attribute," 1946, jazz slang, from soul (n.1). Also from this sense are soul brother (1957), soul sister (1967), soul food (1957), etc. Soul music, essentially gospel music with "girl," etc., in place of "Jesus," first attested 1961; William James used the term in 1900, in a spiritual/romantic sense, but in reference to inner music.
soul (n.1) Look up soul at
"A substantial entity believed to be that in each person which lives, feels, thinks and wills" [Century Dictionary], Old English sawol "spiritual and emotional part of a person, animate existence; life, living being," from Proto-Germanic *saiwalo (source also of Old Saxon seola, Old Norse sala, Old Frisian sele, Middle Dutch siele, Dutch ziel, Old High German seula, German Seele, Gothic saiwala), of uncertain origin.

Sometimes said to mean originally "coming from or belonging to the sea," because that was supposed to be the stopping place of the soul before birth or after death [Barnhart]; if so, it would be from Proto-Germanic *saiwaz (see sea). Klein explains this as "from the lake," as a dwelling-place of souls in ancient northern Europe.

Meaning "spirit of a deceased person" is attested in Old English from 971. As a synonym for "person, individual, human being" (as in every living soul) it dates from early 14c. Soul-searching (n.) is attested from 1871, from the phrase used as a past participle adjective (1610s). Distinguishing soul from spirit is a matter best left to theologians.
soulful (adj.) Look up soulful at
"full of feeling," 1860, from soul (n.1) + -ful. Meaning "expressive of characteristic Black feeling" is from 1964 (see soul (n.2)). Earlier as a noun (1640s), "as much as a soul can hold."
soulless (adj.) Look up soulless at
Old English sawolleas "dead, lifeless;" see soul (n.1) + -less. Modern use (1550s) likely is a re-formation.
soulmate (n.) Look up soulmate at
1822 (as soul mate), first attested in Coleridge, from soul (n.1) + mate (n.). One-word form is from early 20c.
sound (n.1) Look up sound at
"noise, what is heard, sensation produced through the ear," late 13c., soun, from Old French son "sound, musical note, voice," from Latin sonus "sound, a noise," from PIE *swon-o-, from root *swen- "to sound" (source also of Sanskrit svanati "it sounds," svanah "sound, tone;" Latin sonare "to sound;" Old Irish senim "the playing of an instrument;" Old English geswin "music, song," swinsian "to sing;" Old Norse svanr, Old English swan "swan," properly "the sounding bird").

The terminal -d was established c. 1350-1550 as part of a tendency to add -d- after -n-. Compare gender (n.), thunder (n.), jaundice (n.), kindred. First record of sound barrier is from 1939. Sound check is from 1977; sound effects is 1909, originally live accompaniments to silent films.
The experts of Victor ... will ... arrange for the synchronized orchestration and sound effects for this picture, in which airplane battles will have an important part. ["Exhibitor's Herald & Moving Picture World," April 28, 1928]
sound (adj.) Look up sound at
"free from special defect or injury," c. 1200, from Old English gesund "sound, safe, having the organs and faculties complete and in perfect action," from Proto-Germanic *sunda-, from Germanic root *swen-to- "healthy, strong" (source also of Old Saxon gisund, Old Frisian sund, Dutch gezond, Old High German gisunt, German gesund "healthy," as in the post-sneezing interjection gesundheit; also Old English swið "strong," Gothic swinþs "strong," German geschwind "fast, quick"), with connections in Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic. Meaning "right, correct, free from error" is from mid-15c. Meaning "financially solid or safe" is attested from c. 1600; of sleep, "undisturbed," from 1540s. Sense of "holding accepted opinions" is from 1520s.
sound (v.2) Look up sound at
"fathom, probe, measure the depth of," mid-14c. (implied in sounding), from Old French sonder, from sonde "sounding line," perhaps from the same Germanic source that yielded Old English sund "water, sea" (see sound (n.2)). Barnhart dismisses the old theory that it is from Latin subundare. Figurative use from 1570s.
sound (n.2) Look up sound at
"narrow channel of water," c. 1300, from Old Norse sund "a strait, swimming," or from cognate Old English sund "act of swimming, stretch of water one can swim across, a strait of the sea," both from Proto-Germanic *sundam-, from *swum-to-, suffixed form of Germanic root *swem- "to move, stir, swim" (see swim (v.)).
sound (v.1) Look up sound at
early 13c., sounen "to be audible, produce vibrations affecting the ear," from Old French soner (Modern French sonner) and directly from Latin sonare "to sound, make a noise," "to sound," from PIE *swene-, from root *swen- "to sound" (see sound (n.1)). From late 14c. as "cause something (an instrument, etc.) to produce sound." Related: Sounded; sounding.
sound-proof (adj.) Look up sound-proof at
1853, from sound (n.1) + proof (n.).
Soundex (n.) Look up Soundex at
phonetic coding system, 1959, from sound (n.1) + brand-name suffix -ex.
soundless (adj.) Look up soundless at
c. 1600 from sound (n.1) + -less. Related: Soundlessly; soundlessness.
soundly (adv.) Look up soundly at
c. 1400, "safely;" also "deeply" (of sleep), from sound (adj.) + -ly (2). From 1570s as "thoroughly."
soundness (n.) Look up soundness at
late 14c., from sound (adj.) + -ness.
soundtrack (n.) Look up soundtrack at
1929, from sound (n.1) + track (n.).
soup (n.) Look up soup at
"liquid food," 1650s, from French soupe "soup, broth" (13c.), from Late Latin suppa "bread soaked in broth," from a Germanic source (compare Middle Dutch sop "sop, broth"), from Proto-Germanic *sup-, from PIE *sub-, from root *seue- (2) "to take liquid" (see sup (v.2)).

Primordial soup is from a concept first expressed 1929 by J.B.S. Haldane. Soup to nuts "everything" is from 1910. Soup-kitchen, "public establishment supported by voluntary contributions, for preparing and serving soup to the poor at no cost" is attested from 1839. In Ireland, souper meant "Protestant clergyman seeking to make proselytes by dispensing soup in charity" (1854).
soup (v.) Look up soup at
"increase the horsepower of an engine," 1921, probably from soup (n.) in slang sense of "narcotic injected into horses to make them run faster" (1911), influenced by supercharge (v.).
soupcon (n.) Look up soupcon at
"a slight trace or suggestion," 1766, from French soupçon "suspicion," from Old French sospeçon "suspicion, worry, anxiety" (12c.), from Late Latin suspectionem (see suspicion).
soupy (adj.) Look up soupy at
"like soup; wet," 1828 (noted then as a Yorkshire word), from soup (n.) + -y (2). Related: Soupiness.
sour (adj.) Look up sour at
Old English sur "sour, tart, acid, fermented," from Proto-Germanic *sura- "sour" (source also of Old Norse surr, Middle Dutch suur, Dutch zuur, Old High German sur, German sauer), from PIE root *suro- "sour, salty, bitter" (source also of Old Church Slavonic syru, Russian syroi "moist, raw;" Lithuanian suras "salty," suris "cheese").

Meaning "having a peevish disposition" is from early 13c. Sense in whisky sour (1885) is "with lemon added" (1862). Sour cream is attested from 1855. French sur "sour, tart" (12c.) is a Germanic loan-word.
sour (v.) Look up sour at
c. 1300, from sour (adj.). Compare Old High German suren, German säuern. Related: Soured; souring.
sourball (n.) Look up sourball at
1900 as "constantly grumbling person;" 1914 as a type of candy; from sour (adj.) + ball (n.1).
source (v.) Look up source at
"obtain from a specified source," 1972, from source (n.). Related: Sourced; sourcing.
source (n.) Look up source at
mid-14c., "support, base," from Old French sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream" (12c.), fem. noun taken from past participle of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from Latin surgere "to rise, arise, get up, mount up, ascend; attack," contraction of surrigere, from assimilated form of sub "up from below" (see sub-) + regere "to keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Meaning "a first cause" is from late 14c., as is that of "fountain-head of a river." Meaning "person or written work supplying information or evidence" is by 1777.
sourdough (n.) Look up sourdough at
early 14c., "leavened bread," also "leaven" (late 14c.), from sour (adj.) + dough. Meaning "fermented dough" is from 1868. The meaning "Arctic prospector or pioneer" is from 1898 Yukon gold rush, from the practice of saving a lump of fermented dough as leaven for raising bread baked during the winter.
sourly (adv.) Look up sourly at
1530s, from sour (adj.) + -ly (2).
sourness (n.) Look up sourness at
Old English surnes; see sour (adj.) + -ness.
sourpuss (n.) Look up sourpuss at
1937, from sour (adj.) + puss (n.2) "face."
sous chef (n.) Look up sous chef at
early 19c., from French sous, from Old French soz (10c.), from Latin subtus "under, below" (see sub-) + chef.
sousaphone (n.) Look up sousaphone at
1903, named for U.S. bandleader and composer John Philip Sousa (1854-1932).
The first sousaphone was made by C.G. Conn in 1899 expressly for Sousa's band and its bell opened directly upward. The present bell-front type was first made in 1908. ["International Cyclopedia of Music," 1939]
souse (n.) Look up souse at
something steeped in pickle, especially "pig parts preserved and pickled," mid-15c., earlier "liquid for pickling" (late 14c.), from souse (v.) or from its French source.
souse (v.) Look up souse at
late 14c., "to pickle, steep in vinegar," from Old French sous (adj.) "preserved in salt and vinegar," from Frankish *sultja or some other Germanic source (compare Old Saxon sultia "salt water," Old High German sulza "brine"), from Proto-Germanic *salt- (from PIE root *sal- "salt"). Related: Soused; sousing.
soused (adj.) Look up soused at
"drunk," 1610s, from past participle of souse (v.), on notion of one "pickled" in liquor.
soutane (n.) Look up soutane at
"long, buttoned gown or frock with sleeves, outer garment of Roman Catholic ecclesiastics," 1838, from French soutane, from Old French sotane "undershirt," from Medieval Latin subtana "an under-cassock," from Latin subtus "beneath, under, below" (from PIE root *upo "under").
souteneur (n.) Look up souteneur at
"man who lives on the earnings of one or more prostitutes under his protection, pimp," 1906, French, literally "protector," from soutenir "to sustain" (see sustain).
souter (n.) Look up souter at
"maker or mender of shoes," Old English sutere, from Latin sutor "shoemaker," from suere "to sew, stitch" (from PIE root *syu- "to bind, sew").
south (adv.) Look up south at
Old English suð "southward, to the south, southern, in the south," from Proto-Germanic *sunthaz, perhaps literally "sun-side" (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian suth "southward, in the south," Middle Dutch suut, Dutch zuid, German Süden), and related to base of *sunnon "sun" (from PIE root *sawel- "the sun"). Old French sur, sud (French sud), Spanish sur, sud are loan-words from Germanic, perhaps from Old Norse suðr.

As an adjective from c. 1300; as a noun, "one of the four cardinal points," also "southern region of a country," both late 13c. The Southern states of the U.S. have been collectively called The South since 1779 (in early use this often referred only to Georgia and South Carolina). South country in Britain means the part below the Tweed, in England the part below the Wash, and in Scotland the part below the Forth. South Sea meant "the Mediterranean" (late 14c.) and "the English Channel" (early 15c.) before it came to mean (in plural) "the South Pacific Ocean" (1520s). The nautical coat called a sou'wester (1836) protects the wearer against severe weather, such as a gale out of the southwest.
South Africa Look up South Africa at
1815 as a name for a distinct region that had been partly settled by Europeans; 1910 as the name of a nation.