sororal (adj.) Look up sororal at Dictionary.com
1650s, from Latin soror "sister" (see sister) + -al (1).
sorority (n.) Look up sorority at Dictionary.com
1530s, "a society of women, body of women united for some purpose," from Medieval Latin sororitas "sisterhood, of or pertaining to sisters," from Latin soror "sister" (see sister). Sense of "women's society in a college or university" attested by 1887 (Alpha Delta Pi claims founding in 1851).
sorosis (n.) Look up sorosis at Dictionary.com
"consolidated fleshy multiple fruit" (such as a pineapple), 1831, from Modern Latin, from Greek soros "a heap."
sorrel (adj.) Look up sorrel at Dictionary.com
"reddish brown," especially of horses, mid-14c., from Old French sorel, from sor "yellowish-brown," probably from Frankish *saur "dry," or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *sauza- (cognates: Middle Dutch soor "dry," Old High German soren "to become dry," Old English sear "withered, barren;" see sere). Perhaps a diminutive form in French.
sorrel (n.) Look up sorrel at Dictionary.com
small perennial plant, late 14c., from Old French surele (12c., Modern French surelle), from sur "sour," from Frankish *sur or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *sura- "sour" (cognates: Old High German, Old English sur "sour;" see sour (adj.)). So called for the taste of its leaves.
sorrow (n.) Look up sorrow at Dictionary.com
Old English sorg "grief, regret, trouble, care, pain, anxiety," from Proto-Germanic *sorg- (cognates: Old Saxon sorga, Old Norse sorg, Middle Dutch sorghe, Dutch zorg, Old High German soraga, German sorge, Gothic saurga), perhaps from PIE *swergh- "to worry, be sick" (cognates: Sanskrit surksati "cares for," Lithuanian sergu "to be sick," Old Church Slavonic sraga "sickness," Old Irish serg "sickness"). Not connected etymologically with sore (adj.) or sorry.
sorrow (v.) Look up sorrow at Dictionary.com
Old English sorgian, from sorg (see sorrow (n.)). Related: Sorrowed; sorrowing. Compare Dutch zorgen, German sorgen, Gothic saurgan.
sorrowful (adj.) Look up sorrowful at Dictionary.com
Old English sorgful "sad, anxious, careful; distressing, doleful;" see sorrow (n.) + -ful. Related: Sorrowfully; sorowfulness.
sorry (adj.) Look up sorry at Dictionary.com
Old English sarig "distressed, grieved, full of sorrow" (not found in the physical sense of "sore"), from Proto-Germanic *sairiga- "painful" (cognates: Old Saxon serag, Middle Dutch seerigh "sore; sad, sorry," Dutch zeerig "sore, full of sores," Old High German serag, Swedish sårig "sore, full of sores"), from *sairaz "pain" (physical and mental); related to *saira- "suffering, sick, ill" (see sore (adj.)). Meaning "wretched, worthless, poor" first recorded mid-13c. Spelling shift from -a- to -o- by influence of sorrow. Apologetic sense (short for I'm sorry) is attested from 1834; phrase sorry about that popularized 1960s by U.S. TV show "Get Smart." Related: Sorrily; sorriness.
sort (n.) Look up sort at Dictionary.com
late 14c., "group of people, animals, etc.; kind or variety of person or animal," from Old French sorte "class, kind," from Latin sortem (nominative sors) "lot; fate, destiny; share, portion; rank, category; sex, class, oracular response, prophecy," from PIE root *ser- (3) "to line up" (cognates: Latin serere "to arrange, attach, join;" see series). The sense evolution in Vulgar Latin is from "what is allotted to one by fate," to "fortune, condition," to "rank, class, order." Later (mid-15c.) "group, class, or category of items; kind or variety of thing; pattern, design." Out of sorts "not in usual good condition" is attested from 1620s, with literal sense of "out of stock."
sort (v.) Look up sort at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "to arrange according to type or quality," from Old French sortir "allot, sort, assort," from Latin sortiri "draw lots, divide, choose," from sors (see sort (n.)). In some senses, the verb is a shortened form of assort.
sortie (n.) Look up sortie at Dictionary.com
"attack of the besieged upon the besiegers," 1778, from French sortie (16c.), literally "a going out," noun use of fem. past participle of sortir "go out," from Vulgar Latin *surctire, from Latin surrectus, past participle of surgere "rise up" (see surge (n.)).
SOS Look up SOS at Dictionary.com
1910, from International Morse code letters, chosen arbitrarily as being easy to transmit and difficult to mistake. Not an initialism (acronym) for "save our ship" or anything else. Won out over alternative suggestion C.Q.D., which is said to mean "come quickly, distress," or "CQ," general call for alerting other ships that a message follows, and "D" for danger. SOS is the telegraphic distress signal only; the oral equivalent is mayday.
sot (n.) Look up sot at Dictionary.com
late Old English sott "stupid person, fool," from Old French sot, from Gallo-Roman *sott- (probably related to Medieval Latin sottus, c.800), of uncertain origin, with cognates from Portugal to Germany. Surviving meaning "one who is stupefied with drink" first recorded 1590s. As a verb, it is attested from c.1200, but usually besot.
soteriological (adj.) Look up soteriological at Dictionary.com
1879, from German soteriologisch; see soteriology.
soteriology (n.) Look up soteriology at Dictionary.com
1847, in reference to health; 1864 in reference to salvation, from German soteriologie, from Greek soteria "preservation, salvation," from soizein "save, preserve," related to sos "safe, healthy," of uncertain origin. With -ology.
Sothic (adj.) Look up Sothic at Dictionary.com
as in Sothic cycle, a period of 1,460 years, 1828, from French Sothique, from Greek Sothis, an Egyptian name of the star Sirius. The Sothic year is determined by the heliacal rising of Sirius.
sottish (adj.) Look up sottish at Dictionary.com
1560s, "foolish," from sot (-) + -ish. From 1630s as "drunken." Related: sottishly; sottishness.
sotto voce Look up sotto voce at Dictionary.com
1737, Italian, literally "under voice," from sotto, from Latin subtus "below" (source also of French sous; see sub-) + voce, from Latin vocem (nominative vox); see voice (n.).
sou (n.) Look up sou at Dictionary.com
small French coin, 1550s, back-formation from sous, plural of Old French soul, formerly a coin worth one-twentieth of a livre, from Latin solidus (see solidus).
soubrette (n.) Look up soubrette at Dictionary.com
1753, theatrical jargon word for lady's maid characters in plays and operas, who typically were pert, flirtatious, and intriguing, from French soubrette, from Provençal soubreto "affected, conceited," fem. of soubret "coy, reserved," from soubra "to set aside," originally "to exceed," from Old Provençal sobrar, from Latin superare "to rise above, overcome," from super "over, above, beyond" (see super-).
souffle (n.) Look up souffle at Dictionary.com
light dish, sometimes savory but usually sweet, 1813, from French soufflé, noun use of past participle of souffler "to puff up," from Latin sufflare, from sub- "under, up from under" (see sub-) + flare "to blow" (see blow (v.1)).
souffre-douleur (n.) Look up souffre-douleur at Dictionary.com
1845, French, literally "suffer sorrow;" one who is in a subservient position and must listen to or share another's troubles, specifically "a woman who acts as a paid companion to an older woman."
sough (v.) Look up sough at Dictionary.com
"to make a moaning or murmuring sound," Old English swogan "to sound, roar, howl, rustle, whistle," from Proto-Germanic *swoganan (cognates: Old Saxon swogan "to rustle," Gothic gaswogjan "to sigh"), from PIE imitative root *(s)wagh- (cognates: Greek echo, Latin vagire "to cry, roar, sound"). The noun is late 14c., from the verb.
sought Look up sought at Dictionary.com
past tense and past participle of seek, from Old English sohte. Sought-after is from 1881 (sought-for in same sense is from c.1600).
souk (n.) Look up souk at Dictionary.com
Arab bazaar, 1826, from French souk, from Arabic suq "marketplace."
soul (n.1) Look up soul at Dictionary.com
"A substantial entity believed to be that in each person which lives, feels, thinks and wills" [Century Dictionary], Old English sawol "spiritual and emotional part of a person, animate existence; life, living being," from Proto-Germanic *saiwalo (cognates: Old Saxon seola, Old Norse sala, Old Frisian sele, Middle Dutch siele, Dutch ziel, Old High German seula, German Seele, Gothic saiwala), of uncertain origin.

Sometimes said to mean originally "coming from or belonging to the sea," because that was supposed to be the stopping place of the soul before birth or after death [Barnhart]; if so, it would be from Proto-Germanic *saiwaz (see sea). Klein explains this as "from the lake," as a dwelling-place of souls in ancient northern Europe.

Meaning "spirit of a deceased person" is attested in Old English from 971. As a synonym for "person, individual, human being" (as in every living soul) it dates from early 14c. Soul-searching (n.) is attested from 1871, from the phrase used as a past participle adjective (1610s). Distinguishing soul from spirit is a matter best left to theologians.
soul (n.2) Look up soul at Dictionary.com
"instinctive quality felt by black persons as an attribute," 1946, jazz slang, from soul (n.1). Also from this sense are soul brother (1957), soul sister (1967), soul food (1957), etc. Soul music, essentially gospel music with "girl," etc., in place of "Jesus," first attested 1961; William James used the term in 1900, in a spiritual/romantic sense, but in reference to inner music.
soulful (adj.) Look up soulful at Dictionary.com
"full of feeling," 1860, from soul (n.1) + -ful. Meaning "expressive of characteristic Black feeling" is from 1964 (see soul (n.2)). Earlier as a noun (1640s), "as much as a soul can hold."
soulless (adj.) Look up soulless at Dictionary.com
Old English sawolleas "dead, lifeless;" see soul (n.1) + -less. Modern use (1550s) likely is a re-formation.
soulmate (n.) Look up soulmate at Dictionary.com
1822 (as soul mate), first attested in Coleridge, from soul (n.1) + mate (n.). One-word form is from early 20c.
sound (n.1) Look up sound at Dictionary.com
"noise, what is heard, sensation produced through the ear," late 13c., soun, from Old French son "sound, musical note, voice," from Latin sonus "sound, a noise," from PIE *swon-o-, from root *swen- "to sound" (cognates: Sanskrit svanati "it sounds," svanah "sound, tone;" Latin sonare "to sound;" Old Irish senim "the playing of an instrument;" Old English geswin "music, song," swinsian "to sing;" Old Norse svanr, Old English swan "swan," properly "the sounding bird").

The terminal -d was established c.1350-1550 as part of a tendency to add -d- after -n-. First record of sound barrier is from 1939. Sound check is from 1977; sound effects is 1909, originally live accompaniments to silent films.
The experts of Victor ... will ... arrange for the synchronized orchestration and sound effects for this picture, in which airplane battles will have an important part. ["Exhibitor's Herald & Moving Picture World," April 28, 1928]
sound (adj.) Look up sound at Dictionary.com
"free from special defect or injury," c.1200, from Old English gesund "sound, safe, having the organs and faculties complete and in perfect action," from Proto-Germanic *sunda-, from Germanic root *swen-to- "healthy, strong" (cognates: Old Saxon gisund, Old Frisian sund, Dutch gezond, Old High German gisunt, German gesund "healthy," as in the post-sneezing interjection gesundheit; also Old English swið "strong," Gothic swinþs "strong," German geschwind "fast, quick"), with connections in Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic. Meaning "right, correct, free from error" is from mid-15c. Meaning "financially solid or safe" is attested from c.1600; of sleep, "undisturbed," from 1540s. Sense of "holding accepted opinions" is from 1520s.
sound (v.2) Look up sound at Dictionary.com
"fathom, probe, measure the depth of," mid-14c. (implied in sounding), from Old French sonder, from sonde "sounding line," perhaps from the same Germanic source that yielded Old English sund "water, sea" (see sound (n.2)). Barnhart dismisses the old theory that it is from Latin subundare. Figurative use from 1570s.
sound (n.2) Look up sound at Dictionary.com
"narrow channel of water," c.1300, from Old Norse sund "a strait, swimming," or from cognate Old English sund "act of swimming, stretch of water one can swim across, a strait of the sea," both from Proto-Germanic *sundam-, from *swum-to-, suffixed form of Germanic root *swem- "to move, stir, swim" (see swim (v.)).
sound (v.1) Look up sound at Dictionary.com
early 13c., sounen "to be audible, produce vibrations affecting the ear," from Old French soner (Modern French sonner) and directly from Latin sonare "to sound" (see sonata). From late 14c. as "cause something (an instrument, etc.) to produce sound." Related: Sounded; sounding.
sound-proof (adj.) Look up sound-proof at Dictionary.com
1853, from sound (n.1) + proof (n.).
Soundex (n.) Look up Soundex at Dictionary.com
phonetic coding system, 1959, from sound (n.1) + brand-name suffix -ex.
soundless (adj.) Look up soundless at Dictionary.com
c.1600 from sound (n.1) + -less. Related: Soundlessly; soundlessness.
soundly (adv.) Look up soundly at Dictionary.com
c.1400, "safely;" also "deeply" (of sleep), from sound (adj.) + -ly (2). From 1570s as "thoroughly."
soundness (n.) Look up soundness at Dictionary.com
late 14c., from sound (adj.) + -ness.
soundtrack (n.) Look up soundtrack at Dictionary.com
1929, from sound (n.1) + track (n.).
soup (n.) Look up soup at Dictionary.com
"liquid food," 1650s, from French soupe "soup, broth" (13c.), from Late Latin suppa "bread soaked in broth," from a Germanic source (compare Middle Dutch sop "sop, broth"), from Proto-Germanic *sup-, from PIE *sub-, from root *seue- (2) "to take liquid" (see sup (v.2)).

Primordial soup is from a concept first expressed 1929 by J.B.S. Haldane. Soup to nuts "everything" is from 1910. Soup-kitchen, "public establishment supported by voluntary contributions, for preparing and serving soup to the poor at no cost" is attested from 1839. In Ireland, souper meant "Protestant clergyman seeking to make proselytes by dispensing soup in charity" (1854).
soup (v.) Look up soup at Dictionary.com
"increase the horsepower of an engine," 1921, probably from soup (n.) in slang sense of "narcotic injected into horses to make them run faster" (1911), influenced by supercharge (v.).
soupcon (n.) Look up soupcon at Dictionary.com
"a slight trace or suggestion," 1766, from French soupçon "suspicion," from Old French sospeçon "suspicion, worry, anxiety" (12c.), from Late Latin suspectionem (see suspicion).
soupy (adj.) Look up soupy at Dictionary.com
"like soup; wet," 1828 (noted then as a Yorkshire word), from soup (n.) + -y (2). Related: Soupiness.
sour (adj.) Look up sour at Dictionary.com
Old English sur "sour, tart, acid, fermented," from Proto-Germanic *sura- "sour" (cognates: Old Norse surr, Middle Dutch suur, Dutch zuur, Old High German sur, German Sauer), from PIE root *suro- "sour, salty, bitter" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic syru, Russian syroi "moist, raw;" Lithuanian suras "salty," suris "cheese").

Meaning "having a peevish disposition" is from early 13c. Sense in whisky sour (1885) is "with lemon added" (1862). Sour cream is attested from 1855. French sur "sour, tart" (12c.) is a Germanic loan-word.
sour (v.) Look up sour at Dictionary.com
c.1300, from sour (adj.). Compare Old High German suren, German säuern. Related: Soured; souring.
sourball (n.) Look up sourball at Dictionary.com
1900 as "constantly grumbling person;" 1914 as a type of candy; from sour (adj.) + ball (n.1).
source (n.) Look up source at Dictionary.com
mid-14c., "support, base," from Old French sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream" (12c.), fem. noun taken from past participle of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from Latin surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)). Meaning "a first cause" is from late 14c., as is that of "fountain-head of a river." Meaning "written work (later also a person) supplying information or evidence" is from 1788.