stamen (n.) Look up stamen at
"pollen-bearing organ of a flower," 1660s, from Modern Latin (1625, Spigelus), from Latin stamen "stamen" (Pliny), literally "foundation in weaving, thread of the warp" in the upright loom (related to stare "to stand"), from PIE *sta-men- (cognates: Greek stemon "warp," also used by Hesychius for some part of a plant, Gothic stoma, Sanskrit sthaman "place," also "strength"), from root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). The usual English plural is stamens because of the special use of the classical plural, stamina.
stamina (n.) Look up stamina at
1670s, "rudiments or original elements of something," from Latin stamina "threads," plural of stamen (genitive staminis) "thread, warp" (see stamen). Sense of "power to resist or recover, strength, endurance" first recorded 1726 (originally plural), from earlier meaning "congenital vital capacities of a person or animal;" also in part from use of the Latin word in reference to the threads spun by the Fates (such as queri nimio de stamine "too long a thread of life"), and partly from a figurative use of Latin stamen "the warp (of cloth)" on the notion of the warp as the "foundation" of a fabric. Related: Staminal.
Stammbaum (n.) Look up Stammbaum at
German, "family tree," especially of languages, 1939, from Stamm "tree, trunk" (see stem (n.)) + Baum "tree" (see beam (n.)).
stammer (v.) Look up stammer at
Old English stamerian "to stammer," from Proto-Germanic *stamro- (cognates: Old Norse stammr "stammering," Old Saxon stamaron, Gothic stamms "stammering," Middle Dutch and Dutch stameren, Old High German stammalon, German stammeln "to stammer," a frequentative verb related to adjective forms such as Old Frisian and German stumm "mute"). Related: Stammered; stammerer; stammering; stammeringly.
stammer (n.) Look up stammer at
1773, from stammer (v.).
stammtisch (n.) Look up stammtisch at
1938, "table reserved for regular customers in a German restaurant," from German Stammtisch, from Stamm "cadre," literally "tree, trunk" (see stem (n.)) + tisch "table" (see dish (n.)).
stamp (v.) Look up stamp at
Old English stempan "to pound in a mortar," from Proto-Germanic *stamp- (cognates: Old Norse stappa, Danish stampe, Middle Dutch stampen, Old High German stampfon, German stampfen "to stamp with the foot, beat, pound," German Stampfe "pestle"), from nasalized form of PIE root *stebh- "to support, place firmly on" (cognates: Greek stembein "to trample, misuse;" see staff (n.)). The vowel altered in Middle English, perhaps by influence of Scandinavian forms.

Sense of "strike the foot forcibly downwards" is from mid-14c. The meaning "impress or mark (something) with a die" is first recorded 1550s. Italian stampa "stamp, impression," Spanish estampar "to stamp, print," French étamper (13c., Old French estamper) "to stamp, impress" are Germanic loan-words. Related: Stamped; stamping. To stamp out originally was "extinguish a fire by stamping on it;" attested from 1851 in the figurative sense. Stamping ground "one's particular territory" (1821) is from the notion of animals. A stamped addressed envelope (1873) was one you enclosed in a letter to speed or elicit a reply.
stamp (n.) Look up stamp at
mid-15c., "instrument for crushing, stamping tool," from stamp (v.). Especially "instrument for making impressions" (1570s). Meaning "downward thrust or blow with the foot, act of stamping" is from 1580s. Sense of "official mark or imprint" (to certify that duty has been paid on what has been printed or written) dates from 1540s; transferred 1837 to designed, pre-printed adhesive labels issued by governments to serve the same purpose as impressed stamps. German Stempel "rubber stamp, brand, postmark" represents a diminutive form. Stamp-collecting is from 1862 (compare philately).
stampede (n.) Look up stampede at
1844 (earlier stampedo, 1839), "A general scamper of animals on the Western prairies, generally caused by a fright" [Bartlett] from Mexican Spanish estampida, from Spanish, "an uproar," from estamper "to stamp, press, pound," from Provençal estampier "to stamp," from the same Germanic root that yielded English stamp (v.). The political sense is first recorded 1846 (in reference to the U.S. Democratic Party convention of 1844). As the name of an annual exhibition of cowboy skills in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, it is attested from 1912.
stampede (v.) Look up stampede at
1823 (intransitive); 1838 (transitive), from stampede (n.). Related: Stampeded; stampeding.
stance (n.) Look up stance at
1530s, "standing place, station," probably from Middle French stance "resting place, harbor" (16c.), from Vulgar Latin *stantia "place, abode" (also source of Italian stanza "stopping place, station, stanza," Spanish stancia "a dwelling"), from Latin stans (genitive stantis), present participle of stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Sense of "position of the feet" (in golf, etc.) is first recorded 1897; figurative sense of "point of view" is recorded from 1956. The sense of the French word has since narrowed.
stanch (v.) Look up stanch at
"to stop the flow of" (especially of blood), early 14c., from Old French estanchier "cause to cease flowing (of blood), stop, hinder; extinguish (of fire); tire, exhaust, drain" (Modern French étancher), from Vulgar Latin *stancare, perhaps contracted from *stagnicare, from Latin stagnum "pond, pool" (see stagnate). But Barnhart says it probably is from Latin stantio, present participle of stare "to stand."
stanchion (n.) Look up stanchion at
early 14c., "post, pillar, or beam used for support," from Old French estanchon "prop, brace, support" (13c., Modern French étançon), probably from estant "upright," from present participle of ester "be upright, stand," from Latin stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet).
stand (v.) Look up stand at
Old English standan "occupy a place; stand firm; congeal; stay, continue, abide; be valid, be, exist, take place; oppose, resist attack; stand up, be on one's feet; consist, amount to" (class VI strong verb; past tense stod, past participle standen), from Proto-Germanic *sta-n-d- (cognates: Old Norse standa, Old Saxon and Gothic standan, Old High German stantan, parallel with simpler forms, such as Swedish stå, Dutch staan, German stehen [see discussion in OED]), from PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet).

Sense of "to exist, be present" is attested from c. 1300. Meaning "encounter without flinching" is from 1590s; weaker sense of "put up with" is from 1620s. Meaning "to submit" (to chances, etc.) is from c. 1700. Meaning "to pay for as a treat" is from 1821. Meaning "become a candidate for office" is from 1550s. Nautical sense of "hold a course at sea" is from 1620s. Meaning "to be so high when standing" is from 1831.

Stand back "keep (one's) distance" is from c. 1400. Phrase stand pat is from poker (1882), earlier simply stand (1824 in other card games). To stand down is from 1680s, originally of witnesses in court; in the military sense of "come off duty" it is first recorded 1916. To let (something) stand is from c. 1200. To stand for is c. 1300 as "count for;" early 14c. as "be considered in lieu of;" late 14c. as "represent by way of sign;" sense of "tolerate" first recorded 1620s. Phrase stands to reason (1620) is from earlier stands (is constant) with reason.
stand (n.) Look up stand at
Old English stand "a pause, delay, state of rest or inaction," from the root of stand (v.). Compare Dutch and German stand (n.). Sense of "action of standing or coming to a position" is attested from late 14c., especially in reference to fighting (1590s). Sense of "state of being unable to proceed" is from 1590s.

Meaning "place of standing, position" is from early 14c.; figurative sense is from 1590s. Meaning "raised platform for a hunter or sportsman" is attested from c. 1400. Meaning "raised platform for spectators at an open-air event" is from 1610s; meaning "piece of furniture on which something is to be set" is from 1690s. Sense of "stall or booth" is first recorded c. 1500. Military meaning "complete set" (of arms, colors, etc.) is from 1721, often a collective singular. Sense of "standing growth" (usually of of trees) is 1868, American English. Theatrical sense of "each stop made on a performance tour" is from 1896. The word formerly also was slang for "an erection" (1867).
stand-alone (adj.) Look up stand-alone at
1966, from stand (v.) + alone.
stand-by (n.) Look up stand-by at
also standby, 1796, "that which stands by one," originally nautical, of a vessel kept nearby for emergencies, from verbal phrase stand by "await, support, remain beside" (mid-13c.); see stand (v.) + by. Meaning "state of being ready for duty" is from 1946. In civil aviation, as an adjective meaning "without a booked ticket," from 1961. As an order to hold one's self in readiness, it is recorded from 1660s.
stand-in (n.) Look up stand-in at
"one who substitutes for another," 1928, from the verbal phrase, attested from 1904 in show business slang in the sense "to substitute, to fill the place of another," from stand (v.) + in (adv.).
stand-off (n.) Look up stand-off at
also stand-off, 1843, "draw, tie," from the verbal phrase (c. 1600), from stand (v.) + off (adv.). Mexican stand-off "stalemate" is recorded from 1891.
stand-out (n.) Look up stand-out at
also standout, "one who is eminent," 1928; as an adjective in this sense from 1932; from verbal phrase, from stand (v.) + out (adv.). Earlier it was used in a sense "labor strike" (1898). To stand out is from 1530s as "to project or seem to project," 1826 in the figurative sense "be prominent."
stand-pipe (n.) Look up stand-pipe at
"upright pipe," in various technical senses, 1810, from stand (v.) + pipe (n.).
stand-up (adj.) Look up stand-up at
1811, "courageous," originally of fist fights, denoting a manful contest without fake falls, from the verbal phrase (early 12c. in sense "rise to one's feet"), from stand (v.) + up (adv.). To stand up "hold oneself against an opponent" is from c. 1600; as stand up to in the same sense from 1620s. To stand up for "defend the cause of" is from c. 1600. To stand (someone) up "fail to keep an appointment" is attested from 1902. Stand-up comic first attested 1966. Catch-phrase will the real _______ please stand up? is from the popular CBS game show "To Tell the Truth," which debuted in 1956.
standard (n.1) Look up standard at
mid-12c., "flag or other conspicuous object to serve as a rallying point for a military force," from shortened form of Old French estandart "military standard, banner." According to Barnhart and others, this is probably from Frankish *standhard, literally "stand fast or firm," a compound of unrecorded Frankish words cognate stand (v.) and hard. So called because the flag was fixed to a pole or spear and stuck in the ground to stand upright. The more common theory [OED, etc.] calls this folk-etymology and connects the Old French word to estendre "to stretch out," from Latin extendere (see extend). Some senses (such as "upright pole," mid-15c.) seem to be influenced by if not from stand (v.). Standard-bearer in the figurative sense is from 1560s.
standard (adj.) Look up standard at
1620s, "serving as a standard," from standard (adj.). Earlier it meant "upright" (1530s). Standard-bred "bred up to some agreed-upon standard of excellence" is from 1888.
standard (n.2) Look up standard at
"weight, measure, or instrument by which the accuracy of others is determined," late 14c., from standard (n.1) "military standard, banner," a particular use in English of this word, but the sense evolution is "somewhat obscure" [OED]. The standard weights and measures were set by royal ordinance and were known as the king's standard, so perhaps metaphoric, the royal standard coming to stand for royal authority in matters like setting weights and measures. Hence the meaning "authoritative or recognized exemplar of quality or correctness" (late 15c.). Meaning "rule, principal or means of judgment" is from 1560s. That of "definite level of attainment" is attested from 1711 (as in standard of living, 1903).
standardization (n.) Look up standardization at
1888, originally in pharmacology publications, noun of action from standardize.
standardize (v.) Look up standardize at
1857, a hybrid from standard (adj.) + -ize. Related: Standardized; standardizing. Earlier verb was simply standard (1690s).
standing (n.) Look up standing at
late 14c., verbal noun from stand (v.). In the sense of "rank, status," it is first recorded 1570s. Sense of "state of having existed for some time" is 1650s. Legal sense is first recorded 1924. Sports sense is from 1881. To be in good standing is from 1789. Standing room is from 1788.
A young gentleman attempting to get into Drury-lane play-house, found there was such a croud of people that there was no room. Just without the door, a damsel of the town accosted him with 'can't you get in, sir?' to which he replied in the negative. 'If you'll go along with me, resumed she you may get in very easily, for I can furnish you with very good standing room.' ["The Banquet of Wit, or A Feast for the Polite World," London, 1790]
standing (adj.) Look up standing at
late 14c., "at rest, motionless," also "permanent, not transient," present participle adjective from stand (v.). Meaning "having an erect position, upright" is from 1570s; that of "done while standing" is from 1630s. The sense in standing army (c. 1600) is "permanent." Standing ovation is from 1902.
standoffish (adj.) Look up standoffish at
1826, from verbal phrase stand off "hold aloof" (c. 1600); see stand (v.) + off (adv.). Related: Standoffishly; standoffishness.
standpoint (n.) Look up standpoint at
1829, from stand (v.) + point (n.). A loan-translation of German Standpunkt. Century Dictionary calls it "a word objected to by purists."
standstill (n.) Look up standstill at
"state of cessation of movement," 1702, from stand (v.) + still (adv.). Earlier the notion would have been expressed simply by stand.
Stanford-Binet Look up Stanford-Binet at
intelligence test, first published 1916 as a revision and extension of the Binet-Simon intelligence tests, from Stanford University (California, U.S.) + the name of French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857-1911), who devised the attempt at a scientific measurement of intelligence.
stanine (n.) Look up stanine at
"nine-point scale for test scores," introduced by the U.S. Air Force in 1942, from sta(ndard) + nine.
Stanislavsky (adj.) Look up Stanislavsky at
in reference to a method of acting, 1924, from Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavsky (1863-1938).
stank Look up stank at
Old English stanc, past tense of stink (v.).
stannate (n.) Look up stannate at
1797, from Late Latin stannum "tin" (see stannic) + -ate (3).
stannic (adj.) Look up stannic at
"containing tin," 1790, from Modern Latin stannum, from Late Latin stannum "tin" (earlier "alloy of silver and lead"), a scribal alteration of Latin stagnum, probably from a Celtic source (compare Irish stan "tin," Cornish and Breton sten, Welsh ystaen). The Latin word is the source of Italian stagno, French étain, Spanish estaño "tin."
stannous (adj.) Look up stannous at
1829, from Late Latin stannum "tin" (see stannic) + -ous.
stanza (n.) Look up stanza at
"group of rhymed verse lines," 1580s, from Italian stanza "verse of a poem," originally "standing, stopping place," from Vulgar Latin *stantia "a stanza of verse," so called from the stop at the end of it, from Latin stantem (nominative stans), present participle of stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, set down, make or be firm" (see stet). Related: Stanzaic.
stapes (n.) Look up stapes at
"stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear," 1660s, from Modern Latin (1560s), special use of Medieval Latin stapes "stirrup," probably an alteration of Late Latin stapia, related to stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, set down, make or be firm" (see stet) + pedem, accusative of pes "foot," from PIE root *ped- (1) "a foot" (see foot (n.)). This was an invented Medieval Latin word for "stirrup," for which there was no classical Latin word, as the ancients did not use stirrups.
staph Look up staph at
colloquial short form of staphylococcus, attested from 1933.
staphylococcus (n.) Look up staphylococcus at
(plural staphylococci), 1887, Modern Latin, the genus name, coined (on model of streptococcus) in 1882 by Scottish surgeon and bacteriologist Alexander Ogston (1844-1929). The first element is from comb. form of Greek staphyle "bunch of grapes," which possibly is from PIE *stabh-, variant of *stebh- "post, stem; to support" (see staff (n.)). The second element is Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos "berry, grain" (see cocco-). So called because the bacteria usually bunch together in irregular masses.
staple (n.1) Look up staple at
"bent piece of metal with pointed ends," late 13c., from Old English stapol "post, pillar, trunk of a tree, steps to a house," from Proto-Germanic *stapulaz "pillar" (cognates: Old Saxon stapal "candle, small tub," Old Frisian stapul "stem of a tooth," Dutch stapel "a prop, foot-rest, seat," Middle Low German stapel "block for executions," German Stapel "stake, beam"), from *stap-, from PIE stebh- (see staff (n.)).

A general Germanic word that apparently evolved a specialized meaning in English, though OED finds the connection unclear and suggests the later sense in English might not be the same word. Meaning "piece of thin wire driven through papers to hold them together" is attested from 1895.
staple (n.2) Look up staple at
"principal article grown or made in a country or district," early 15c., "official market for some class of merchandise," from Anglo-French estaple (14c.), Old French estaple "counter, stall; regulated market, depot," from a Germanic source akin to Middle Low German stapol, Middle Dutch stapel "market," literally "pillar, foundation," from the same source as staple (n.1), the notion perhaps being of market stalls behind pillars of an arcade, or else of a raised platform where the king's deputies administered judgment.

The sense of "principle article grown or made in a place" is 1610s, short for staple ware "wares and goods from a market" (early 15c.). Meaning "principle element or ingredient in anything" is from 1826. Meaning "fiber of any material used for spinning" is late 15c., of uncertain origin, and perhaps an unrelated word.
staple (v.) Look up staple at
late 14c., "to fix with a (large) staple," from staple (n.1). In the wire paper fastener sense, by 1898. Related: Stapled; stapling.
stapler (n.) Look up stapler at
mechanical device for driving staples, by 1949; agent noun from staple (v.). Long before, it meant "merchant of the staple, monopolist."
star (n.) Look up star at
Old English steorra "star," from Proto-Germanic *sterron, *sternon (cognates: Old Saxon sterro, Old Frisian stera, Dutch ster, Old High German sterro, German Stern, Old Norse stjarna, Swedish stjerna, Danish stierne, Gothic stairno).

This is from PIE *ster- (2) "star" (cognates: Sanskrit star-, Hittite shittar, Greek aster, astron, Latin stella, Breton sterenn, Welsh seren "star"), of uncertain connection to other roots. Some suggest it is from a root meaning "to strew, scatter." Buck and others doubt the old suggestion that it is a borrowing from Akkadian istar "venus." The source of the common Balto-Slavic word for "star" (Lithuanian žvaigžde, Old Church Slavonic zvezda, Polish gwiazda, Russian zvezda) is not explained.

Astrological sense of "influence of planets and zodiac on human affairs" is recorded from mid-13c., hence "person's fate as figured in the stars" (c. 1600); star-crossed "ill-fated" is from "Romeo and Juliet" (1592). Meaning "lead performer" is from 1824; star turn is from 1898. Stars as a ranking of quality for hotels, restaurants, etc. are attested from 1886, originally in Baedecker guides. Sticker stars as rewards for good students are recorded from 1970s. Brass star as a police badge is recorded from 1859 (New York City). Star-cluster is from 1870. To see stars when one is hit hard on the head is from 1839.
star (v.) Look up star at
1590s, "to affix a star or asterisk to," from star (n.). From 1718 as "to set with stars." Meaning "perform the lead part" (of actors, singers, etc.) is from 1824. Sporting sense is from 1916. Related: Starred; starring.
Star Chamber (n.) Look up Star Chamber at
late 14c., apartment in the royal palace at Westminster in which members of the king's council sat to exercise jurisdiction 14-15c., it evolved 15c. into a court of criminal jurisdiction, infamous under James I and Charles I for arbitrary and oppressive proceedings. Abolished 1641. Supposedly so called because gilt stars had been painted on the ceiling. Later there was a star on the door.