stimulant (adj.) Look up stimulant at
1772, from French stimulant or directly from Latin stimulantem (nominative stimulans), present participle of stimulare "to prick, urge, stimulate" (see stimulation). As a noun from 1794.
stimulate (v.) Look up stimulate at
1610s, "rouse to action," from Latin stimulatus, past participle of stimulare (see stimulation). Related: Stimulated; stimulating.
stimulation (n.) Look up stimulation at
1520s, "act of pricking or stirring to action," from Latin stimulationem (nominative stimulatio) "an incitement," noun of action from past participle stem of stimulare "prick, goad, urge," from stimulus "spur, goad" (see stimulus).
stimuli (n.) Look up stimuli at
Latinate plural of stimulus.
stimulus (n.) Look up stimulus at
plural stimuli, 1680s, originally as a medical term, "something that goads a lazy organ" (often the male member), from a modern use of Latin stimulus "a goad, a pointed stick," figuratively "a sting, a pang; incitement, spur," from PIE *sti- "point, prick, pierce" (see stick (v.)). General sense of "something that excites or arouses the mind or spirit" is from 1791. Psychological sense is first recorded 1894.
sting (v.) Look up sting at
Old English stingan "to stab, pierce, or prick with a point" (of weapons, insects, plants, etc.), from Proto-Germanic *stingan (cognates: Old Norse stinga, Old High German stungen "to prick," Gothic us-stagg "to prick out," Old High German stanga, German stange "pole, perch," German stengel "stalk, stem"), perhaps from PIE *stengh-, nasalized form of root *stegh- "to prick, sting" (cognates: Old English stagga "stag," Greek stokhos "pointed stake").

Specialized to insects late 15c. Intransitive sense "be sharply painful" is from 1848. Slang meaning "to cheat, swindle" is from 1812. Old English past tense stang, past participle stungen; the past tense later leveled to stung.
sting (n.) Look up sting at
Old English stincg, steng "act of stinging, puncture, thrust," from the root of sting (v.). Meaning "sharp-pointed organ capable of inflicting a painful puncture wound" is from late 14c. Meaning "carefully planned theft or robbery" is attested from 1930; sense of "police undercover entrapment" first attested 1975.
sting-ray (n.) Look up sting-ray at
also sting ray, 1620s, from sting + ray (n.2). First in Capt. John Smith's writings: "Stingraies, whose tailes are very dangerous ...."
stinger (n.) Look up stinger at
1550s, agent noun from sting (v.). As an animal part, from 1889; earlier in this sense was sting (n.).
stinging (adj.) Look up stinging at
c. 1200, present participle adjective from sting (v.). Figurative use from late 14c.
stingy (adj.) Look up stingy at
"niggardly, penurious, extremely tight-fisted," 1650s, of uncertain origin, perhaps a dialectal alteration of earlier stingy "biting, sharp, stinging" (1610s), from sting (v.). Back-formation stinge "a stingy person" is recorded from 1905. Related: Stingily; stinginess.
stink (v.) Look up stink at
Old English stincan "emit a smell of any kind; exhale; rise (of dust, vapor, etc.)" (class III strong verb; past tense stanc, past participle stuncen), common West Germanic (cognates: Old Saxon stincan, West Frisian stjonke, Old High German stinkan, Dutch stinken), from the root of stench. Old English had swote stincan "to smell sweet," but offensive sense also was in Old English and predominated by mid-13c.; smell now tends the same way. Figurative meaning "be offensive" is from early 13c.; meaning "be inept" is recorded from 1924. To stink to high heaven first recorded 1963.
stink (n.) Look up stink at
mid-13c., "strong offensive odor," from stink (v.). Sense of "extensive fuss" first recorded 1812.
stink eye (n.) Look up stink eye at
"dirty look," by 1972, perhaps from Hawaiian slang.
stink-bug (n.) Look up stink-bug at
1869, American English, from stink + bug (n.).
stinker (n.) Look up stinker at
as a term of abuse (often banteringly), c. 1600, agent noun from stink (v.); also in the same sense was stinkard (c. 1600). Extended form stinkeroo attested by 1934.
stinkhorn (n.) Look up stinkhorn at
type of foul-smelling fungus, 1724, from stink + horn (n.), for its shape.
stinking (adj.) Look up stinking at
late 14c., earlier stinkend, from Old English stincende; present participle adjective from stink (v.). Modifying drunk, first attested 1887; stinking rich dates from 1956.
stinkpot (n.) Look up stinkpot at
also stink-pot, 1660s, from stink + pot (n.1).
stinkweed (n.) Look up stinkweed at
1793, from stink + weed (n.).
stinky (adj.) Look up stinky at
1888, from stink (n.) + -y (2). Related: Stinkiness. Stinko "of very poor quality" is from 1924.
stint (v.) Look up stint at
"to be sparing or frugal," 1722, earlier "to limit, restrain" (1510s), "cause to cease, put an end to" (mid-14c.), "cease, desist" (intransitive), c. 1200, from Old English styntan "to blunt, make dull," probably originally "make short," from Proto-Germanic *stuntijanan (cognates: Old Norse stuttr "short, scant," Middle High German stunz "blunt, short," German stutzen "to cut short, curtail, stop, hesitate"), from PIE root *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). The English word perhaps was influenced by its Scandinavian cognates. Sense of "be careful in expenditure" is from 1848. Related: Stinted; stinting. The noun is attested from c. 1300.
stipe (n.) Look up stipe at
"stalk of a plant," 1785, from French stipe, from Latin stipes "log, post, tree trunk" (see stiff (adj.)).
stipend (n.) Look up stipend at
early 15c., "periodical payment; soldier's pay," from Latin stipendium "tax, impost, tribute," in military use "pay, salary," from stips "alms, small payment, contribution of money, gift" + pendere "weigh" (see pendant). According to Klein's sources, the first element is related to Latin stipes "log, stock, trunk of a tree" (see stipe). As a verb from late 15c.
stipendiary (adj.) Look up stipendiary at
1540s, from Latin stipendiarius, from stipendium (see stipend).
stipple (v.) Look up stipple at
"paint with dots," 1670s, from Dutch stippelen "to make points," frequentative of stippen "to prick, speckle," from stip "a point," perhaps ultimately from PIE root *st(e)ig- "pointed" (see stick (v.)), or from *steip- "to stick, compress." Related: Stippled; stippling.
stipulate (v.) Look up stipulate at
1620s, "bargain, make a contract" (intransitive), back-formation from stipulation, or else from Latin stipulatus, past participle of stipulari "exact (a promise), bargain for." Transitive sense of "demand as a condition" is from 1640s. Related: Stipulated; stipulating.
stipulation (n.) Look up stipulation at
1550s, "a commitment or activity to do something" (now obsolete), from Latin stipulationem (nominative stipulatio), noun of action from past participle stem of stipulari "exact a promise, engage, bargain," of uncertain origin. Traditionally said to be from Latin stipula "stalk, straw" (see stipule) in reference to some obscure symbolic act; this is rejected by most authorities, who, however, have not come up with a better guess. De Vaan suggests "the original meaning of the verb was 'to draw/cut straws.' ... The noun stip- must have developed from a concrete object that was used for payments, but the nature of the object is unknown: a certain stalk of a plant? a measure of corn?" Meaning "act of specifying one of the terms of a contract or agreement" is recorded from 1750. Meaning "that which is stipulated or agreed upon" in English is from 1802.
stipule (n.) Look up stipule at
"small appendage at the base of the petiole of a leaf," 1793, from French stipule, from Latin stipula "stalk (of hay), straw," from PIE *stip-ola-, from root *steip- "to stick, compress" (see stiff (adj.)).
stir (v.) Look up stir at
Old English styrian "to stir, move; rouse, agitate, incite, urge" (transitive and intransitive), from Proto-Germanic *sturjan (cognates: Middle Dutch stoeren, Dutch storen "to disturb," Old High German storan "to scatter, destroy," German stören "to disturb"), from PIE *(s)twer- (1) "to turn, whirl" (see storm (n.)). Related: Stirred; stirring. Stir-fry (v.) is attested from 1959.
stir (n.) Look up stir at
"commotion, disturbance, tumult," late 14c. (in phrase on steir), probably from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse styrr "disturbance, tumult," from the same root as stir (v.)). The sense of "movement, bustle" (1560s) probably is from the English verb.
stir-crazy (adj.) Look up stir-crazy at
1908, from crazy (adj.) + stir (n.) "prison" (1851), probably from Start Newgate (1757), prison in London, later any prison (1823), probably from Romany stardo "imprisoned," related to staripen "a prison." According to Barnhart, mid-19c. sturaban, sturbin "state prison" seem to be transitional forms.
stirpes (n.) Look up stirpes at
plural of stirps, Latin, literally "stem, stalk, trunk of a plant," figuratively "scion, offspring, descendant; source, origin, foundation, beginning." Hence stirpiculture "breeding of special stocks or strains."
stirring (n.) Look up stirring at
"a beginning to move," mid-14c., verbal noun from stir (v). Figurative sense by late 14c. Related: Stirrings.
stirring (adj.) Look up stirring at
late 15c., replacing sterand, from Old English styrend "in active motion; animated, rousing,"present participle adjective from stir (v.). Related: Stirringly.
stirrup (n.) Look up stirrup at
Old English stigrap "a support for the foot of a person mounted on a horse," literally "climbing rope," from stige "a climbing, ascent" (from Proto-Germanic *stigaz "climbing;" see stair) + rap (see rope (n.)). Originally a looped rope as a help for mounting. Germanic cognates include Old Norse stigreip, Middle Dutch stegerep, Old High German stegareif, German stegreif. Surgical device used in childbirth, etc., so called from 1884. Stirrup-cup (1680s) was a cup of wine or other drink handed to a rider already on horseback and setting out on a journey, hence "a parting glass" (compare French le vin de l'etrier).
stitch (n.) Look up stitch at
Old English stice "a prick, puncture, sting, stab," from Proto-Germanic *stikiz (cognates: Old Frisian steke, Old High German stih, German Stich "a pricking, prick, sting, stab"), from PIE *stig-i-, from root *steig- "to stick; pointed" (see stick (v.)). The sense of "sudden, stabbing pain in the side" was in late Old English.

Senses in sewing and shoemaking first recorded late 13c.; meaning "bit of clothing one is (or isn't) wearing" is from c. 1500. Meaning "a stroke of work" (of any kind) is attested from 1580s. Surgical sense first recorded 1520s. Sense of "amusing person or thing" is 1968, from notion of laughing so much one gets stitches of pain (cognates: verbal expression to have (someone) in stitches, 1935).
stitch (v.) Look up stitch at
c. 1200, "to stab, pierce," also "to fasten or adorn with stitches;" see stitch (n.). Surgical sense is from 1570s. Related: Stitched; stitcher; stitching.
stitchery (n.) Look up stitchery at
c. 1600, from stitch (v.) + -ery.
stitching (n.) Look up stitching at
1520s, verbal noun from stitch (v.).
stoa (n.) Look up stoa at
"portico," c. 1600, from Greek stoa "colonnade, corridor," from PIE *sta- "to stand" (see stet). A name given in Athens to several public buildings. The ancient stoa was "usually a detached portico, often of considerable extent, generally near a public place to afford opportunity for walking or conversation under shelter" [Century Dictionary].
stoat (n.) Look up stoat at
mid-15c., stote, "the ermine, especially in its brown summer coat," of uncertain origin. The word bears resemblance to Old Norse stutr "bull," Swedish stut "bull," Danish stud "ox," but the sense is difficult unless a common notion is "male animal."
stochastic (adj.) Look up stochastic at
1660s, "pertaining to conjecture," from Greek stokhastikos "able to guess, conjecturing," from stokhazesthai "to guess, aim at, conjecture," from stokhos "a guess, aim, target, mark," literally "pointed stick set up for archers to shoot at," from PIE *stogh-, variant of root *stegh- "to stick, prick; pointed" (see sting (v.)). The sense of "randomly determined" is from 1934, from German stochastik (1917).
stock (n.1) Look up stock at
Old English stocc "stump, post, stake, tree trunk, log," also "pillory" (usually plural, stocks), from Proto-Germanic *stukkaz "tree trunk" (cognates: Old Norse stokkr "block of wood, trunk of a tree," Old Saxon, Old Frisian stok, Middle Dutch stoc "tree trunk, stump," Dutch stok "stick, cane," Old High German stoc "tree trunk, stick," German Stock "stick, cane;" also Dutch stuk, German Stück "piece"), from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)).

Meaning "ancestry, family" (late 14c.) is a figurative use of the "tree trunk" sense (as in family tree). This is also the root of the meaning "heavy part of a tool," and "part of a rifle held against the shoulder" (1540s). Meaning "person as dull and senseless as a block or log" is from c. 1300; hence "a dull recipient of action or notice" (1540s).

Meaning "framework on which a boat was constructed" (early 15c.) led to figurative phrase on stocks "planned and commenced" (1660s). Taking stock "making an inventory" is attested from 1736. Stock, lock, and barrel "the whole of a thing" is recorded from 1817. Stock-still (late 15c.) is literally "as still as a tree trunk."
stock (n.2) Look up stock at
"supply for future use" (early 15c.), "sum of money" (mid-15c.), Middle English developments of stock (n.1), but the ultimate sense connection is uncertain. Perhaps the notion is of the "trunk" from which gains are an outgrowth, or from stock (n.1) in obsolete sense of "money-box" (c. 1400). Meaning "subscribed capital of a corporation" is from 1610s.

In stock "in the possession of a trader" is from 1610s. Meaning "broth made by boiling meat or vegetables" is from 1764. Theatrical use, in reference to a company regularly acting together at a given theater, is attested from 1761. Figurative phrase take stock in "regard as important" is from 1870. As the collective term for the movable property of a farm, it is recorded from 1510s; hence livestock.
stock (v.) Look up stock at
"to supply (a store) with stock," 1620s, from stock (n.2). Meaning "to lay up in store" is from c. 1700. Earliest sense is "to imprison in stocks" (early 14c.). Related: Stocked; stocking.
stock (adj.) Look up stock at
in reference to conversation, literature, "recurring, commonplace" (as in stock phrase), 1738, figurative use from sense "kept in store for constant use" (1620s), from stock (n.2).
stock market (n.) Look up stock market at
"place where securities are bought and sold," 1809, from stock (n.2) + market. The original Stock Market (mid-14c.) was a fish and meat market in the City of London on or near the later site of Mansion House, so called perhaps because it occupied the site of a former stocks. Stock exchange is attested from 1773.
stock-broker (n.) Look up stock-broker at
1706, from stock (n.2) + broker.
stock-car (n.) Look up stock-car at
racing car with a basic chassis of an ordinary commercially produced vehicle, 1914, American English, from stock (n.2) + car. Earlier "a railroad car used to transport livestock" (1858).