- stoled (adj.)
- "wearing a stole," 1540s; see stole.
- stolen (adj.)
- c. 1300, past participle adjective from steal (v.).
Stolen waters are sweet; and bread eaten in secret is pleasant. [Prov. ix:17, KJV]
- stolid (adj.)
- c. 1600, back-formation from stolidity, or else from Middle French stolide (16c.), from Latin stolidus "insensible, dull, slow, brutish, rude, stupid," properly "unmovable," related to stultus "foolish," from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)).
- stolidity (n.)
- 1560s, from Middle French stolidite and directly from Late Latin stoliditatem (nominative stoliditas) "dullness, obtuseness, stupidity," from Latin stolidus (see stolid).
- stolon (n.)
- "a shoot, sucker," c. 1600, from Latin stolonem (nominative stolo) "a shoot, branch, sucker," cognate with Greek stele "standing block," stelekhos "trunk, stem, log;" from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)).
- stoma (n.)
- "orifice, small opening in an animal body," 1680s, Modern Latin, from Greek stoma (genitive stomatos) "mouth; mouthpiece; talk, voice; mouth of a river; any outlet or inlet," from PIE root *stom-en-, denoting various body parts and orifices (source also of Avestan staman- "mouth" (of a dog), Hittite shtamar "mouth," Middle Breton staffn "mouth, jawbone," Cornish stefenic "palate"). Surgical sense is attested from 1937.
- stomach (n.)
- late 14c., earlier stomak (early 14c.), "internal pouch into which food is digested," from Old French stomaque, estomac "stomach," from Latin stomachus "throat, gullet; stomach," also "taste, inclination, liking; distaste, dislike;" also "pride, indignation," which were thought to have their origin in that organ (source also of Spanish estómago, Italian stomaco), from Greek stomachos "throat, gullet, esophagus," literally "mouth, opening," from stoma "mouth" (see stoma).
Applied anciently to the openings of various internal organs, especially that of the stomach, then by the later Greek physicians to the stomach itself. The native word is maw. Some 16c. anatomists tried to correct the sense back to "esophagus" and introduce ventricle for what we call the stomach. Meaning "belly, midriff, part of the body that contains the stomach" is from late 14c.
The spelling of the ending of the word was conformed to Latin, but the pronunciation remains as in Middle English. Related: stomachial (1580s); stomachical (c. 1600); stomachic (1650s). Pugilistic stomacher "punch in the stomach" is from 1814; from mid-15c. as "vest or other garment which covers the belly." The Latin figurative senses also were in Middle English (such as "relish, inclination, desire," mid-15c.) or early Modern English. Also sometimes regarded in Middle Ages as the seat of sexual desire.
- stomach (v.)
- "tolerate, put up with," 1570s, from stomach (n.), probably in reference to digestion; earlier sense was opposite: "to be offended at, resent" (1520s), echoing Latin stomachari "to be resentful, be irritated, be angry," from stomachus (n.) in its secondary sense of "pride, indignation." Related: Stomached; stomaching.
- stomach-ache (n.)
- 1763, from stomach (n.) + ache (v.).
- stomatitis (n.)
- "inflammation of the interior of the mouth," 1859, from Greek stomato- (befdore vowels stomat-), comb. form from stem of stoma "mouth" (see stoma) + -itis "inflammation."
- stomp (v.)
- 1803, variant of stamp. Related: Stomped; stomping. Noun meaning "lively social dance" is recorded from 1912 in jazz slang.
- stone (v.)
- c. 1200, "to pelt with stones," from stone (n.). From c. 1600 as "to fit with stones;" 1630s as "to free from stones" (of fruit, etc.). Related: Stoned; stoning.
- stone (adj.)
- "made of stone," Old English (which also had stænan "stonen"); see stone (n.). As an intensifying adjective recorded from 1935, first recorded in African-American vernacular, probably from earlier use in phrases like stone blind (late 14c., literally "blind as a stone"), stone deaf, stone-cold (1590s), etc. Stone cold sober dates from 1937.
- stone (n.)
- Old English stan, used of common rocks, precious gems, concretions in the body, memorial stones, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (source also of Old Norse steinn, Danish steen, Old Saxon sten, Old Frisian sten, Dutch steen, Old High German stein, German Stein, Gothic stains), from PIE *stoi-no-, suffixed form of root *stai- "stone," also "to thicken, stiffen" (source also of Sanskrit styayate "curdles, becomes hard;" Avestan stay- "heap;" Greek stear "fat, tallow," stia, stion "pebble;" Old Church Slavonic stena, Russian stiena "wall").
Sense of "testicle" is from late Old English. The British measure of weight (usually equal to 14 pounds) is from late 14c., originally a specific stone. Stone-fruit, one with a pit, is from 1520s. Stone's throw for "a short distance" is attested from 1580s. Stone Age is from 1864. To kill two birds with one stone is first attested 1650s. To leave no stone unturned is from 1540s.
- stoned (adj.)
- 1510s, "having or containing stones," past participle adjective from stone (v.). From 1728 as "deprived of stones." Slang meaning "drunk; intoxicated with narcotics" is from 1930s. Stoner is from mid-14c. as "one who stones;" mid-1960s as "stuporous person."
- stonefly (n.)
- mid-15c., from stone (n.) + fly (n.). So called because the larval forms abound under stones of steams.
- Stonehenge (n.)
- early 12c., Stanenges, literally "stone gallows," perhaps so called from fancied resemblance to old-style gallows with two posts, with the second element related to the verb hang. Some antiquarians suggest the notion may be of "supported in the air, that which hangs in the air" (compare henge-clif for Latin præruptum), in reference to the lintel stones, but the order of the elements and the inflection is against this. An ancient name for it was the Giant's Dance.
- stonemason (n.)
- 1733, from stone (n.) + mason. Another name for the profession was hard-hewer (15c.). Stone-cutter is from 1530s; Old English had stanwyrhta "stone-wright."
- stonewall (n.)
- also stone wall, Old English stanwalle; see stone (n.) + wall (n.). As nickname of Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson (1824-1863), bestowed 1861 on the occasion of the First Battle of Bull Run, supposedly by Gen. Bernard Bee, urging his brigade to rally around Jackson, who was "standing like a stone wall." Bee was killed in the battle; the account of the nickname appeared in Southern newspapers within four days of the battle.
On the face of it this account has no character of authenticity, and the words ascribed to Bee smack less of the battlefield than of the editorial sanctum. ... It seems inherently probable that something was said by somebody, during or immediately after the battle, that likened Jackson or his men or both to a stone wall. [R.M. Johnston, "Bull Run: Its Strategy and Tactics," Boston, 1913]
- stonewall (v.)
- "to obstruct," 1889 in sports; 1914 in politics, from metaphoric use of stone wall (n.) for "act of obstruction" (1876). Related: Stonewalled; stonewalling (defined in Century Dictionary as "parliamentary obstruction by talking against time, raising technical objections, etc.," and identified as originally Australian).
- stoneware (n.)
- 1680s, from stone (n.) + ware (n.).
- stonework (n.)
- Old English stanweorc; see stone (n.) + work (n.).
- stony (adj.)
- also stoney, Old English stænig; see stone (n.) + -y (2). Similar formation in Old High German steinag, German Steinig, Swedish stenig. Related: Stonily; stoniness.
- past tense and past participle of stand (v.).
- stooge (n.)
- 1913, "stage assistant, actor who assists a comedian," of uncertain origin, perhaps an alteration of student (with the mispronunciation STOO-jent) in sense of "apprentice." Meaning "lackey, person used for another's purpose" first recorded 1937. The Three Stooges film slapstick act debuted in movies in 1930, originally as "Ted Healy and His Stooges."
- stool (n.)
- Old English stol "seat for one person," from Proto-Germanic *stolaz (source also of Old Frisian stol, Old Norse stoll, Old High German stuol, German Stuhl "seat," Gothic stols "high seat, throne"), from PIE *sta-lo-, locative of root *stā- "to stand" (source also of Lithuanian pa-stolas "stand," Old Church Slavonic stolu "stool;" see stet).
Originally used of thrones (as in cynestol "royal seat, throne"); decline in sense began with adoption of chair (n.) from French, which relegated stool to small seats without arms or backs, then to "privy" (early 15c.) and thence to "bowel movement" (1530s).
- stool pigeon (n.)
- "police informer," 1859, American English; earlier "one who betrays the unwary (or is used to betray them)," 1821, originally a decoy bird (1812); said to be from decoys being fastened to stools to lure other pigeons. But perhaps related to stall "decoy bird" (c. 1500), especially "a pigeon used to entice a hawk into the net" (see stall (n.2)). Also see pigeon.
- stool-ball (n.)
- outdoor game similar to cricket, in 16c. and 17c. generally played by women alone, late 15c., from stool (n.) + ball (n.1). "The 'stool' was the wicket ... perhaps it was originally an ordinary stool" [OED].
- stoop (v.)
- "bend forward," Old English stupian "to bow, bend," from Proto-Germanic *stup- (source also of Middle Dutch stupen "to bow, bend," Norwegian stupa "fall, drop"), from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). Figurative sense of "condescend," especially expressing a lowering of the moral self, is from 1570s. Sense of "swoop" is first recorded 1570s in falconry. Related: Stooped; stooping. The noun meaning "an act of stooping" is from c. 1300. Stoop-shouldered attested from 1773.
- stoop (n.)
- "raised open platform at the entrance of a house," 1755, American and Canadian, from Dutch stoep "flight of steps, doorstep, threshold," from Middle Dutch, from Proto-Germanic *stap- "step" (see step (v.)).
This, unlike most of the words received [in American English] from the Dutch, has extended, in consequence of the uniform style of building that prevails throughout the country, beyond the bounds of New York State, as far as the backwoods of Canada. [Bartlett]
Also in South African English as stoep.
- stop (v.)
- Old English -stoppian (in forstoppian "to stop up, stifle"), a general West Germanic word, cognate with Old Saxon stuppon, West Frisian stopje, Middle Low German stoppen, Old High German stopfon, German stopfen "to plug, stop up," Old Low Frankish (be)stuppon "to stop (the ears)."
These words are said by many sources to be a Germanic borrowing of Vulgar Latin *stuppare "to stop or stuff with tow or oakum" (source of Italian stoppare, French étouper "to stop with tow"), from Latin stuppa "coarse part of flax, tow." In support of this theory, it is said that plugs made of tow were used from ancient times in Rhine valley. Century Dictionary says this "suits phonetically," but "is on grounds of meaning somewhat doubtful." Barnhart, for one, proposes the whole Germanic group might be native, from a base *stoppon.
Sense of "bring or come to a halt, discontinue" (mid-15c.) is from notion of preventing a flow by blocking a hole, and the word's development in this sense is unique to English, though it since has been widely adopted in other languages; perhaps influenced by Latin stupere "be stunned, be stupefied." Intransitive meaning "check oneself" is from 1680s. Meaning "make a halt or stay, tarry" is from 1711. Stop-light is from 1922; stop-sign is from 1918. Stop-motion is from 1851, originally of looms. Related: Stopped; stopping.
- stop (n.)
- late 14c., "a plug;" mid-15c., "a cessation," from stop (v.). Of mechanisms of musical instruments from c. 1500, especially of organs, where opening them makes it produce more sound, hence figurative phrase pull out the stops (1909). From 1660s in phonetics, 1831 in photography. Meaning "a stopping place" is from 1889. To put a stop to some activity is from 1670s (earlier give a stop to, 1580s).
- stop-and-go (adj.)
- 1926, originally a reference to traffic signals; see stop (v.), go (v.). Stop-go in same sense is from 1918.
- stop-over (n.)
- also stopover, 1881, from the verbal phrase, from stop (v.) + over (adv.).
- stope (n.)
- 1747, a mining word, from Low German stope "a step," apparently cognate with step (n.). As a verb from 1778, "remove the contents of a vein," literally "to cut in stopes." Related: Stoped; stoping.
- stopgap (n.)
- also stop-gap, 1680s, from stop (v.) + gap (n.); the notion probably being of something that plugs a leak, but it may be in part from gap (n.) in a specific military sense "opening or breach in defenses by which attack may be made (1540s). Also as an adjective from 1680s.
- stoppable (adj.)
- 1934, probably a back-formation from unstoppable.
- stoppage (n.)
- mid-15c., "deduction from payment," from stop (v.) + -age. From late 15c. as "impediment, hindrance, obstruction;" 1650s as "act of stopping."
- stopper (n.)
- late 15c., "one who obstructs," agent noun from stop (v.). From 1590s as "something that obstructs;" specific sense "glass plug for a bottle neck" is from 1660s. As a verb from 1670s. Related: Stoppered.
- stopwatch (n.)
- also stop-watch, 1737, from stop (v.) + watch (n.).
- storage (n.)
- 1610s, "space for storing," from store (v.) + -age. Storage unit as a household piece attested from 1951.
- store (n.)
- c. 1300, "supplies or provisions for a household, camp, etc.," from store (v.) or else from Old French estore "provisions; a fleet, navy, army," from estorer or from Medieval Latin staurum, instaurum "store." General sense of "sufficient supply" is attested from late 15c. The meaning "place where goods are kept for sale" is first recorded 1721 in American English (British English prefers shop (n.)), from the sense "place where supplies and provisions are kept" (1660s).
The word store is of larger signification than the word shop. It not only comprehends all that is embraced in the word shop, when that word is used to designate a place in which goods or merchandise are sold, but more, a place of deposit, a store house. In common parlance the two words have a distinct meaning. We speak of shops as places in which mechanics pursue their trades, as a carpenter's shop a blacksmith's shop a shoemaker's shop. While, if we refer to a place where oods and merchandise are bought and sold, whether by wholesale or retail, we speak of it as a store. [C.J. Brickell, opinion in Sparrenberger v. The State of Alabama, December term, 1875]
Stores "articles and equipment for an army" is from 1630s. In store "laid up for future use" (also of events, etc.) is recorded from late 14c. Store-bought is attested from 1912, American English; earlier store-boughten (1872).
- store (v.)
- mid-13c., "to supply or stock," from Old French estorer "erect, construct, build; restore, repair; furnish, equip, provision," from Latin instaurare "restore, renew, repair, make," in Medieval Latin also "to provide, store," from in- "in" + -staurare, from PIE *stau-ro-, suffixed extended form of root *stā- "to stand" (see stet, and compare restore). The meaning "to keep in store for future use" (1550s) probably is a back-formation from store (n.). Related: Stored; storing.
- store-room (n.)
- 1746, from store + room (n.).
- storefront (n.)
- 1853, from store (n.) + front (n.). As an adjective from 1919.
- storehouse (n.)
- mid-14c., from store (n.) + house (n.). Figurative use from 1570s.
- storekeeper (n.)
- 1610s, from store (n.) + keeper.
- storied (adj.1)
- late 15c., "ornamented with scenes from history" (of books, walls, etc.), from past participle of verb form of story (n.1). Meaning "celebrated in history or legend" is from 1725.
- storied (adj.2)
- "having stories or floors" of a certain type or number, 1620s, from story (n.2).
- stork (n.)
- Old English storc "stork," from Proto-Germanic *sturkaz (source also of Old Norse storkr, Swedish and Danish stork, Middle Dutch storc, Old High German storah, German Storch "stork"), from PIE *ster- "stiff" (source also of Old English stear "stiff, strong;" see stark). Perhaps so called with reference to the bird's stiff or rigid posture. But some connect the word to Greek torgos "vulture."
Old Church Slavonic struku, Russian sterkhu, Lithuanian starkus, Hungarian eszterag, Albanian sterkjok "stork" are said to be Germanic loan-words. The children's fable that babies are brought by storks (told by adults who aren't ready to go into the details) is in English by 1854, from German and Dutch nursery stories, no doubt from the notion that storks nesting on one's roof meant good luck, often in the form of family happiness.