stop (n.) Look up stop at
late 14c., "a plug;" mid-15c., "a cessation," from stop (v.). Of mechanisms of musical instruments from c. 1500, especially of organs, where opening them makes it produce more sound, hence figurative phrase pull out the stops (1909). From 1660s in phonetics, 1831 in photography. Meaning "a stopping place" is from 1889. To put a stop to some activity is from 1670s (earlier give a stop to, 1580s).
stop-and-go (adj.) Look up stop-and-go at
1926, originally a reference to traffic signals; see stop (v.), go (v.). Stop-go in same sense is from 1918.
stop-over (n.) Look up stop-over at
also stopover, 1881, from the verbal phrase, from stop (v.) + over (adv.).
stope (n.) Look up stope at
1747, a mining word, from Low German stope "a step," apparently cognate with step (n.). As a verb from 1778, "remove the contents of a vein," literally "to cut in stopes." Related: Stoped; stoping.
stopgap (n.) Look up stopgap at
also stop-gap, 1680s, from stop (v.) + gap (n.); the notion probably being of something that plugs a leak, but it may be in part from gap (n.) in a specific military sense "opening or breach in defenses by which attack may be made (1540s). Also as an adjective from 1680s.
stoppable (adj.) Look up stoppable at
1934, probably a back-formation from unstoppable.
stoppage (n.) Look up stoppage at
mid-15c., "deduction from payment," from stop (v.) + -age. From late 15c. as "impediment, hindrance, obstruction;" 1650s as "act of stopping."
stopper (n.) Look up stopper at
late 15c., "one who obstructs," agent noun from stop (v.). From 1590s as "something that obstructs;" specific sense "glass plug for a bottle neck" is from 1660s. As a verb from 1670s. Related: Stoppered.
stopwatch (n.) Look up stopwatch at
also stop-watch, 1737, from stop (v.) + watch (n.).
storage (n.) Look up storage at
1610s, "space for storing," from store (v.) + -age. Storage unit as a household piece attested from 1951.
store (v.) Look up store at
mid-13c., "to supply or stock," from Old French estorer "erect, construct, build; restore, repair; furnish, equip, provision," from Latin instaurare "restore, renew, repair, make," in Medieval Latin also "to provide, store," from in- "in" + -staurare, from PIE *stau-ro-, suffixed extended form of root *sta- "to stand" (see stet, and compare restore). The meaning "to keep in store for future use" (1550s) probably is a back-formation from store (n.). Related: Stored; storing.
store (n.) Look up store at
c. 1300, "supplies or provisions for a household, camp, etc.," from store (v.) or else from Old French estore "provisions; a fleet, navy, army," from estorer or from Medieval Latin staurum, instaurum "store." General sense of "sufficient supply" is attested from late 15c. The meaning "place where goods are kept for sale" is first recorded 1721 in American English (British English prefers shop (n.)), from the sense "place where supplies and provisions are kept" (1660s).
The word store is of larger signification than the word shop. It not only comprehends all that is embraced in the word shop, when that word is used to designate a place in which goods or merchandise are sold, but more, a place of deposit, a store house. In common parlance the two words have a distinct meaning. We speak of shops as places in which mechanics pursue their trades, as a carpenter's shop a blacksmith's shop a shoemaker's shop. While, if we refer to a place where oods and merchandise are bought and sold, whether by wholesale or retail, we speak of it as a store. [C.J. Brickell, opinion in Sparrenberger v. The State of Alabama, December term, 1875]
Stores "articles and equipment for an army" is from 1630s. In store "laid up for future use" (also of events, etc.) is recorded from late 14c. Store-bought is attested from 1912, American English; earlier store-boughten (1872).
store-room (n.) Look up store-room at
1746, from store + room (n.).
storefront (n.) Look up storefront at
1853, from store (n.) + front (n.). As an adjective from 1919.
storehouse (n.) Look up storehouse at
mid-14c., from store (n.) + house (n.). Figurative use from 1570s.
storekeeper (n.) Look up storekeeper at
1610s, from store (n.) + keeper.
storied (adj.1) Look up storied at
late 15c., "ornamented with scenes from history" (of books, walls, etc.), from past participle of verb form of story (n.1). Meaning "celebrated in history or legend" is from 1725.
storied (adj.2) Look up storied at
"having stories or floors" of a certain type or number, 1620s, from story (n.2).
stork (n.) Look up stork at
Old English storc "stork," from Proto-Germanic *sturkaz (cognates: Old Norse storkr, Swedish and Danish stork, Middle Dutch storc, Old High German storah, German Storch "stork"), from PIE *ster- "stiff" (cognates: Old English stear "stiff, strong;" see stark). Perhaps so called with reference to the bird's stiff or rigid posture. But some connect the word to Greek torgos "vulture."

Old Church Slavonic struku, Russian sterkhu, Lithuanian starkus, Hungarian eszterag, Albanian sterkjok "stork" are said to be Germanic loan-words. The children's fable that babies are brought by storks (told by adults who aren't ready to go into the details) is in English by 1854, from German and Dutch nursery stories, no doubt from the notion that storks nesting on one's roof meant good luck, often in the form of family happiness.
storm (n.) Look up storm at
Old English storm "violent disturbance of the atmosphere, tempest; onrush, attack, tumult; disturbance," from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz "storm" (cognates: Old Norse stormr, Old Saxon, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch, Dutch storm, Old High German sturm, German Sturm), from PIE *stur-mo-, from root *(s)twer- (1) "to turn, whirl." Old French estour "onset, tumult," Italian stormo "a fight" are Germanic loan-words. Figurative (non-meteorological) sense was in late Old English.

Storm-wind is from 1798. Storm-door first recorded 1872; storm-water is from 1847; storm-window is attested from 1824. Storm surge attested from 1872. Adverbial phrase _______ up a storm is from 1946.
storm (v.) Look up storm at
of the wind, "to rage, be violent," c. 1400, considered to be from storm (n.). Old English had styrman, cognate with Dutch stormen, Old High German sturman, German stürmen, Danish storme, Military sense "attack (a place) by scaling walls and forcing gates" (1640s) first attested in writings of Oliver Cromwell. Related: Stormed; storming. Italian stormire "make a noise" is from Germanic.
storm-trooper (n.) Look up storm-trooper at
"member of the Nazi Sturmabteilung," 1933, from storm (v.) + trooper (also see Sturmabteilung). Storm-troops (1917) translates German sturmtruppen, introduced by the German military in World War I.
stormy (adj.) Look up stormy at
early 14c., from late Old English storemig (12c.), from storm (n.) + -y (2). Figurative use by mid-14c. Related: Storminess.
story (n.1) Look up story at
"connected account or narration of some happening," c. 1200, originally "narrative of important events or celebrated persons of the past," from Old French estorie, estoire "story, chronicle, history," from Late Latin storia, shortened from Latin historia "history, account, tale, story" (see history). Meaning "recital of true events" first recorded late 14c.; sense of "narrative of fictitious events meant to entertain" is from c. 1500. Not differentiated from history till 1500s. As a euphemism for "a lie" it dates from 1690s. Meaning "newspaper article" is from 1892. Story-line first attested 1941. That's another story "that requires different treatment" is attested from 1818. Story of my life "sad truth" first recorded 1938, from typical title of an autobiography.
story (n.2) Look up story at
"floor of a building," c. 1400, from Anglo-Latin historia "floor of a building" (c. 1200), also "picture," from Latin historia (see history). "Perhaps so called because the front of buildings in the Middle Ages often were decorated with rows of painted windows" [Barnhart].
story-board (n.) Look up story-board at
also storyboard, 1941, from story (n.1) + board (n.1).
story-book (n.) Look up story-book at
1711, from story (n.1) + book (n.). As an adjective from 1844.
story-telling (n.) Look up story-telling at
also storytelling, 1709, from story (n.1) + present participle of tell (v.). Related: Story-teller (1709).
stound (n.) Look up stound at
"time, moment" (archaic), from Old English stund "point of time, time, hour," cognate with Old Saxon stonda, Old Frisian stunde, Dutch stondi, German Stunde "hour."
stoup (n.) Look up stoup at
late 14c., "jug," especially one made of leather, also a measure for liquid, from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse staup "cup," from Proto-Germanic *staupo- (cognates: Middle Low German stop, Middle Dutch stoop "a cup, vessel," Dutch stoop, Old High German stouf, German Stauf, Old English steap).
stour (n.) Look up stour at
c. 1300, "tumult, armed conflict, struggle with adversity or pain," from Anglo-French estur, Old French estour "a tumult, conflict, assault, shock, battle," from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz "storm" (cognates: Old High German sturm "storm; battle;" see storm (n.)). Became obsolete, revived by Spenser and his followers in various senses; also surviving as a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "a (driving) storm" or "uproar, commotion." Italian stormo also is from Germanic.
stout (adj.) Look up stout at
c. 1300, "proud, valiant, strong," from Old French estout "brave, fierce, proud," earlier estolt "strong," from a Germanic source from West Germanic *stult- "proud, stately, strutting" (cognates: Middle Low German stolt "stately, proud," German stolz "proud, haughty, arrogant, stately"), from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand" (see stall (n.1)). Meaning "strong in body, powerfully built" is attested from late 14c., but has been displaced by the (often euphemistic) meaning "thick-bodied, fat and large, bulky in figure," which is first recorded 1804. Original sense preserved in figurative phrase stout-hearted (1550s). Related: Stoutly; stoutness.
stout (n.) Look up stout at
1670s, "strong beer or ale," from stout (adj.). Later especially, and now usually, "porter of extra strength" (by 1762).
stove (n.) Look up stove at
mid-15c., "heated room, bath-room," from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch stove, both meaning "heated room," which was the original sense in English; a general West Germanic word (Old English stofa "bath-room," Old High German stuba, German Stube "sitting room").

Of uncertain relationship to similar words in Romance languages (Italian stufa, French étuve "sweating-room;" see stew (v.)). One theory traces them all to Vulgar Latin *extufare "take a steam bath." The meaning "device for heating or cooking" is first recorded 1610s.
stove-pipe (n.) Look up stove-pipe at
1690s, from stove (n.) + pipe (n.). As a type of hat for men, from 1851, so called for being tall and cylindrical like a stove-pipe.
stow (v.) Look up stow at
c. 1300, "to put, place (somewhere)," verbal use of Old English noun stow "a place, spot, site, locality" (common in place names), from Proto-Germanic *stowo- (cognates: Old Frisian sto "place," Middle Low German, Middle Dutch stouwen, Dutch stuwen "to stow," Old High German stouwen "to stop, check," German stauen "to stow, pack; bring to a halt, hem in"), from PIE *stau- "stout, standing, strong," extended form of root *sta- "to stand" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic stavljo "to place," Lithuanian stoviu "to stand;" see stet). The nautical sense of "put away to be stored, pack" (1550s) was enforced by Dutch stouwen "to cram, pack up close." Related: Stowed; stowing.
stowaway (n.) Look up stowaway at
1848, from verbal phrase stow away "conceal," in use by 1795; see stow + away.
STP (n.) Look up STP at
commercial motor oil additive, probably an initialism (acronym) of scientifically treated petroleum. As the street name of a type of psychedelic drug, attested from 1967.
strabismus (n.) Look up strabismus at
"a squinting," 1680s, medical Latin, from Greek strabismos, from strabizein "to squint," from strabos "squinting, squint-eyed," related to strobos "a whirling round," from PIE *streb(h)- "to wind, turn" (see strophe). Earlier in anglicized form strabism (1650s). Related: Strabismal; strabismic; strabismical.
straddle (v.) Look up straddle at
1560s, "spread the legs wide," probably an alteration of striddle (mid-15c.), frequentative of striden (see stride (v.)). Transitive sense "place one leg on one side of and the other on the other side of" is from 1670s. U.S. colloquial figurative sense of "take up an equivocal position, appear to favor both sides" is attested from 1838. Related: Straddled; straddling. The noun is first recorded 1610s.
Stradivarius (n.) Look up Stradivarius at
valued type of violin, 1818, from Latinized form of name of Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737), violin-maker of Cremona, or his sons or pupils. Short form Strad is attested from 1884.
strafe (v.) Look up strafe at
1915, "punish, attack, bomb heavily," picked up by British soldiers from German strafen "to punish" (from Proto-Germanic *stræf-), in slogan Gott strafe England "May God punish England," current in Germany c. 1914-16 at the start of World War I. The word used for many kinds of attack at first; meaning "shoot up ground positions from low-flying aircraft" emerged as the main sense 1942. Related: Strafed; strafing.
straggle (v.) Look up straggle at
early 15c., "to wander from the proper path, stray, to rove from one's companions," perhaps from a Scandinavian source (compare dialectal Norwegian stragla "to walk laboriously"), or a frequentative of Middle English straken "to move, go." Specifically of soldiers, "be dispersed, be apart from the main body," from 1520s. Related: Straggled; straggling.
straggler (n.) Look up straggler at
1520s, agent noun from straggle (v.).
straight (adj.1) Look up straight at
late 14c., "direct, undeviating; not crooked, not bent or curved," of a person, "direct, honest;" properly "stretched," adjectival use of Old English streht (earlier streaht), past participle of streccan "to stretch" (see stretch (v.)). Related: Straightly; straightness.

Meaning "true, direct, honest" is from 1520s. Of communication, "clear, unambiguous," from 1862. Sense of "undiluted, uncompromising" (as in straight whiskey, 1874) is American English, first recorded 1856. As an adverb from c. 1300, "in a straight line, without swerving or deviating." Theatrical sense of "serious" (as opposed to popular or comic) is attested from 1895; vaudeville slang straight man first attested 1923.

Go straight in the underworld slang sense is from 1919; straighten up "become respectable" is from 1907. To play it straight is from 1906 in theater, 1907 in sports ("play fair"), with figurative extension; later perhaps also from jazz. Straight arrow "decent, conventional person" is 1969, from archetypal Native American brave name. Straight shooter is from 1928. Straight As "top grades" is from 1920.
straight (adj.2) Look up straight at
"conventional," especially "heterosexual," 1941, a secondary sense evolved from straight (adj.1), probably suggested by straight and narrow path "course of conventional morality and law-abiding behavior," which is based on a misreading of Matt. vii:14 (where the gate is actually strait), and the other influence seems to be from strait-laced.
straight (n.) Look up straight at
1640s, "a level position," from straight (adj.1). From 1864 as "straight part of a race track." Poker sense attested from 1841. Meaning "conventional person" is first recorded 1967, from straight (adj.2).
straight-edge (n.) Look up straight-edge at
1812, "bar for drawing or measuring straight lines," from straight (adj.1) + edge (n.). As the name of a punk subculture, attested by 1987, probably suggested by straight (adj.2).
straight-faced (adj.) Look up straight-faced at
1938, of persons, "with visage showing no emotion or reaction," from expression keep a straight face (1897), from straight (adj.).
straighten (v.) Look up straighten at
1540s (transitive), from straight (adj.1) + -en (1). Intransitive sense from 1891. Related: Straightened; straightening; straightener. The Middle English verb was simply straight (late 14c.).