supervisor (n.) Look up supervisor at
"one who inspects and directs the work of others," mid-15c., from Medieval Latin supervisor, agent noun from supervidere "oversee, inspect" (see supervise).
supervisory (adj.) Look up supervisory at
1828, from supervise + -ory.
superwoman (n.) Look up superwoman at
1906, as female equivalent of superman in the Nietzschean sense. From 1976 in the sense of "one who successfully combines career and motherhood."
supinate (v.) Look up supinate at
1831, "to place the hand so that the palm is turned upward," from Latin supinatus, past participle of supinare "to bend back," related to supinus (see supine). Related: Supinated; supinating; supinator.
supination (n.) Look up supination at
1660s, from Late Latin supinationem (nominative supinatio), noun of action from past participle stem of supinare (see supinate).
supine (adj.) Look up supine at
c. 1500, "lying on the back," from Latin supinus "bent backwards, thrown backwards, lying on the back," figuratively "inactive, indolent," from PIE *(s)up- (see sub-). The grammatical use for "Latin verbal noun formed from the past participle stem" (mid-15c.) is from Late Latin supinum verbum "supine verb," perhaps so called because, though furnished with a noun case ending, it "falls back" on the verb. Related: Supinely.
supper (n.) Look up supper at
mid-13c., soper, "the last meal of the day," from Old French soper "evening meal," noun use of infinitive soper "to eat the evening meal," which is of Germanic origin (see sup (v.1)).
Formerly, the last of the three meals of the day (breakfast, dinner, and supper); now applied to the last substantial meal of the day when dinner is taken in the middle of the day, or to a late meal following an early evening dinner. Supper is usually a less formal meal than late dinner. [OED]
Applied since c. 1300 to the last meal of Christ.
suppertime (n.) Look up suppertime at
also supper-time, late 14c., from supper + time (n.).
supplant (v.) Look up supplant at
early 14c., "to trip up, overthrow, defeat, dispossess," from Old French suplanter, sosplanter "to trip up, overthrow, drive out, usurp," or directly from Latin supplantare "trip up, overthrow," from sub "under" (see sub-) + planta "sole of the foot" (see plant (n.)). Meaning "replace one thing with another" first recorded 1670s. There is a sense evolution parallel in Hebrew akabh "he beguiled," from akebh "heel."
supple (adj.) Look up supple at
c. 1300, "soft, tender," from Old French souple, sople "pliant, flexible; humble, submissive" (12c.), from Gallo-Roman *supples, from Latin supplex "submissive, humbly begging, beseeching, kneeling in entreaty," literally "bending, kneeling down," perhaps an altered form of *supplacos "humbly pleading, appeasing," from sub "under" + placare "appease" (see placate). Meaning "pliant" is from late 14c.; figurative sense of "artfully obsequious, capable of adapting oneself to the wishes and opinions of others" is from c. 1600. Supple-chapped (c. 1600) was used of a flatterer. Related: Suppleness.
supplement (n.) Look up supplement at
late 14c., from Latin supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up" (see supply (v.)).
supplement (v.) Look up supplement at
1829, from supplement (n.). Compare Spanish suplementar. Related: Supplemented; supplementing.
supplemental (adj.) Look up supplemental at
c. 1600, from supplement (n.) + -al (1). Related: Supplementally. Generally "added to supply what is wanted," whereas supplementary historically tends toward "added as something secondary or supernumerary."
supplementary (adj.) Look up supplementary at
1660s, "added as something extra," from supplement (n.) + -ary. Suppletory in the same sense is from 1620s.
suppliant (n.) Look up suppliant at
early 15c., from Middle French suppliant, noun use of present participle of supplier "to plead humbly, entreat, beg, pray," (Old French souploier, 12c.), from Latin supplicare "beg, beseech" (see supplication). Originally in English especially at law; sense of "humble petitioner" is from mid-16c. As an adjective, "supplicating, entreating" from 1580s. Related: Suppliance; suppliantly.
supplicant (adj.) Look up supplicant at
1590s, from Latin supplicantem (nominative supplicans), present participle of supplicare "plead humbly" (see supplication). As a noun from 1590s, "a humble petitioner."
supplicate (v.) Look up supplicate at
early 15c., "beg for, beseech," back-formation from supplication or else from Latin supplicatus, past participle of supplicare "plead humbly, beseech, kneel down." Related: Supplicated; supplicating.
supplication (n.) Look up supplication at
late 14c., from Old French suplicacion "humble request," from Latin supplicationem (nominative supplicatio) "a public prayer, thanksgiving day," noun of action from past participle stem of supplicare "plead humbly" (see supple). In ancient Rome, a religious solemnity, especially in thanksgiving for a victory or in times of public danger.
supply (v.) Look up supply at
late 14c., "to help, support, maintain," also "fill up, make up for," from Old French soupplier "fill up, make full" (Modern French suppléer) and directly from Latin supplere "fill up, make full, complete," from sub "up from below" (see sub-) + plere "to fill" (see pleio-). The meaning "furnish, provide" first recorded 1520s. Related: Supplied; supplying.
supply (n.) Look up supply at
early 15c., "assistance, relief, act of supplying," from supply (v.). Meaning "that which is provided, quantity or amount of something provided" is attested from c. 1600. Meaning "person who temporarily takes the place of another" (especially a minister or preacher) is from 1580s. In the political economy sense (corollary of demand (n.)) it dates from 1776; supply-side (adj.) in reference to economic policy is attested from 1976; as a noun by 1922. Supplies "necessary provisions held for distribution and use" is from c. 1650.
support (v.) Look up support at
late 14c., "to aid," also "to hold up, prop up, put up with, tolerate," from Old French suporter "to bear, endure, sustain, support" (14c.), from Latin supportare "convey, carry, bring up, bring forward," from sub "up from under" (see sub-) + portare "to carry" (see port (n.1)). Related: Supported; supporting.
support (n.) Look up support at
late 14c., "act of assistance, backing, help, aid," from support (v.). Meaning "that which supports, one who provides assistance, protection, backing, etc." is early 15c. Sense of "bearing of expense" is mid-15c. Physical sense of "that which supports" is from 1560s. Meaning "services which enable something to fulfil its function and remain in operation" (as in tech support) is from 1953.
supporter (n.) Look up supporter at
early 15c., "adherent, partisan," agent noun from support (v.). Meaning "that which supports" is from 1590s.
supportive (adj.) Look up supportive at
1590s, from support (v.) + -ive. Called "rare" in OED 1st edition and Century Dictionary. Related: Supportively; supportiveness.
supposably (adv.) Look up supposably at
"as may be supposed," 1795, not originally American English, alteration of supposedly, or else from supposable (1680s), from suppose (v.) + -able.
suppose (v.) Look up suppose at
early 14c., "to assume as the basis of argument," from Old French suposer "to assume" (13c.), probably a replacement (influenced by Old French poser "put, place") of *suppondre, from Latin supponere "put or place under; to subordinate, make subject," from sub "under" (see sub-) + ponere "put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). Meaning "to admit as possible, to believe to be true" is from 1520s.
supposed (adj.) Look up supposed at
"believed or thought to exist," 1580s, past participle adjective from suppose (v.); often with the -e- pronounced, to distinguish it from the passive past tense supposed, now common in the sense of "to have a duty or obligation" (1859).
supposedly (adv.) Look up supposedly at
"as may be supposed, presumably," 1610s, from supposed + -ly (2).
supposition (n.) Look up supposition at
early 15c., a term in logic, "assumption, hypothesis," from Medieval Latin suppositionem (nominative suppositio) "assumption, hypothesis, a supposition," noun of action from past participle stem of supponere (see suppose); influenced by Greek hypothesis. In classical Latin, "a putting under, substitution." Earlier in English in the same sense was supposal (late 14c.). Related: Suppositional; suppositionally.
supposititious (adj.) Look up supposititious at
"put by artifice in place of another," 1610s, from Latin supposititius, from suppositus, past participle of supponere (see suppose).
suppository (n.) Look up suppository at
late 14c., from Medieval Latin suppositorium "a suppository," noun use of neuter of Late Latin adjective suppositorius "placed underneath or up," from Latin suppositus, past participle of supponere "put or place under" (see suppose).
suppress (v.) Look up suppress at
late 14c. (implied in suppressing) "be burdensome;" 1520s as "put down by force or authority," from Latin suppressus, past participle of supprimere "press down, stop, hold back, check, stifle," from sub "down, under" (see sub-) + premere "push against" (see press (v.1)). Sense of "prevent or prohibit the circulation of" is from 1550s of publications; medical use from 1620s. Related: Suppressed; suppressing.
suppressant (n.) Look up suppressant at
"that which suppresses," 1922, from suppress + -ant.
suppression (n.) Look up suppression at
early 15c., from Latin suppressionem (nominative suppresio), noun of action from past participle stem of supprimere (see suppress).
supprise (n.) Look up supprise at
mid-15c., "injury, wrong, outrage," from supprise (v.) "overpower, subdue, put down; grieve, afflict" (c. 1400), also "take unawares, attack unexpectedly" (mid-15c.), from Anglo-French supprise, fem. past participle of supprendre, variant of sorprendre (see surprise (n.)). The noun later also had sense "oppression; surprise attack," but perhaps originally was an alternate form of surprise used in a specific sense.
suppurate (v.) Look up suppurate at
early 15c., from Latin suppuratus, past participle of suppurare "form or discharge pus" (see suppuration). Related: Suppurated; suppurating.
suppuration (n.) Look up suppuration at
early 15c., from French suppuration or directly from Latin suppurationem (nominative suppuratio), noun of action from past participle stem of suppurare "form or discharge pus," from sub "under" (see sub-) + stem of pus (see pus).
suppurative (adj.) Look up suppurative at
1540s, from medical Latin suppurativus, from suppurat-, stem of suppurare (see suppuration). As a noun from 1560s.
supra- Look up supra- at
word-forming element meaning "above, over, beyond, before," from Latin supra "above, over, before, beyond, on the upper side," in supera (parte), literally "on the upper (side)," from old fem. ablative singular of superus (adj.) "above," related to super "above, over" (see super-). In English interchangeable with, but somewhat more technical than, super-. Rare as a prefix in Latin, more common in Medieval Latin, in English chiefly scientific or technical.
supra-national (adj.) Look up supra-national at
also supranational, 1871 (T.H. Huxley), from supra- + national. Perhaps inspired by German supra-national (1865).
supra-nationalism (n.) Look up supra-nationalism at
also supranationalism, 1901, from supra-national + -ism.
supralapsarian (adj.) Look up supralapsarian at
1630s, with -ian + supralapsary, from supra- + Latin lapsus (see lapse (n.)). The opposite of infralapsarian.
supremacist (n.) Look up supremacist at
by 1948, originally with reference to racial beliefs and in most cases with white, from supremacy + -ist. Compare supremist. Related: Supremacism.
supremacy (n.) Look up supremacy at
1540s, from supreme + -acy, or from Latin supremitatem (nominative supremitas). Supremity in same sense is from 1530s.
supreme (adj.) Look up supreme at
1520s, from Middle French suprême (15c.) and directly from Latin supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above" (see super-). Supreme Being "God" first attested 1690s; Supreme Court is from 1689.
supremist (n.) Look up supremist at
1640s, "one who holds supreme authority," from supreme + -ist.
sur- (1) Look up sur- at
word-forming element meaning "over, above, beyond, in addition," especially in words from Anglo-French and Old French, from Old French sour-, sor-, sur-, from Latin super (see super-).
sur- (2) Look up sur- at
assimilated form of sub- before -r-.
sura (n.) Look up sura at
chapter of the Quran, 1610s, from Arabic surah, literally "step, degree." Compare Hebrew shurah "row, line."
surcease (v.) Look up surcease at
early 15c., "cease from an action, desist," from Anglo-French surseser, Old French sursis, past participle of surseoir "to refrain, delay," from Latin supersedere "forbear, refrain or desist from" (see supersede). The English spelling with -c- was influenced by the unrelated verb cease. As a noun from 1580s.