tubercular (adj.) Look up tubercular at
1799, "characterized by tubers," from Latin tuberculum (see tubercule) + -ar. From 1898 as "having tuberculosis."
tuberculosis (n.) Look up tuberculosis at
1860, "disease characterized by tubercules," a medical Latin hybrid, from Latin tuberculum "small swelling, pimple," diminutive of tuber "lump" (see tuber) + -osis, a suffix of Greek origin. So called in reference to the tubercules which form in the lungs. Originally in reference to any disease characterized by tubercules; since the discovery in 1882 of the tubercule bacillus by German bacteriologist Robert Koch (1843-1910) restricted to disease caused by this. Abbreviation T.B. attested from 1912.
tuberculous (adj.) Look up tuberculous at
"characterized by tubers," 1747, from Latin tuberculum (see tubercule) + -ous.
tubing (n.) Look up tubing at
recreational pastime of riding a river on a truck tire inner tube, 1975; see tube (n.).
tubular (adj.) Look up tubular at
1670s, "having the form of a tube or pipe," from Latin tubulus "a small pipe" (see tube) + -ar. Teen slang sense attested by 1982, Valspeak, apparently from surfers' use of tube as slang for a hollow, curling wave, ideal for riding (1962).
tuck (v.) Look up tuck at
late 14c., "to pull or gather up," earlier "to pluck, stretch" (implied in tucker "one who finishes clothes by stretching them on tenters, late 13c. as a surname), probably from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch tucken "pull up, draw up, tug" (cognate with Old English tucian "mistreat, torment," and related to Old English togian "to pull," German zucken; see tow (v.)). Sense of "thrust into a snug place" is first recorded 1580s. Slang meaning "to consume, swallow, put into one's stomach" is recorded from 1784. Related: Tucked; tucking.
tuck (n.) Look up tuck at
late 14c., "flattened fold in clothing, pleat," from tuck (v.). As a folded-up diving position, from 1951.
tuckahoe (n.) Look up tuckahoe at
edible plant root of eastern U.S., 1610s, American English, from Powhatan (Algonquian) tockawhouge (compare Mohegan tquogh, Shawnee tukwhah), perhaps related to Cree (Algonquian) pitikwaw "made round." From early 19c. a name applied in Virginia to those east of the Blue Ridge Mountains by the settlers west of them, who called themselves Cohees.
tucker (n.) Look up tucker at
"piece of lace worn around the neck," 1680s, agent noun from tuck (v.). In Middle English tukere was "one who dresses or finishes cloth," hence the surname.
tucker (v.) Look up tucker at
"to tire, weary," 1833, New England slang, of uncertain origin, perhaps from tucked (past participle of tuck (v.)), which had, in reference to dogs, a slang sense of "exhausted, underfed." Especially with out. Related: Tuckered; tuckering.
Tucson Look up Tucson at
city in Arizona, U.S.A., from Spanish Tucson, from O'odham (Piman) cukson "black base," from cuk "black" + son "base."
tude (n.) Look up tude at
teenager slang shortening of attitude, 1970s.
Tudor Look up Tudor at
1779 in reference to the English royal family, from Welsh surname Tewdwr, used of the line of English sovereigns from Henry VII to Elizabeth I, descended from Owen Tudor, who married Catherine, widowed queen of Henry V. Applied from 1815 to a style of architecture prevalent during these reigns. The name is the Welsh form of Theodore.
Tuesday (n.) Look up Tuesday at
third day of the week, Old English tiwesdæg, from Tiwes, genitive of Tiw "Tiu," from Proto-Germanic *Tiwaz "god of the sky," the original supreme deity of ancient Germanic mythology, differentiated specifically as Tiu, ancient Germanic god of war, from PIE *deiwos "god," from root *dyeu- "to shine" (see diurnal). Compare Old Frisian tiesdei, Old Norse tysdagr, Swedish tisdag, Old High German ziestag.

The day name (second element dæg, see day) is a translation of Latin dies Martis (source of Italian martedi, French Mardi) "Day of Mars," from the Roman god of war, who was identified with Germanic Tiw (though etymologically Tiw is related to Zeus), itself a loan-translation of Greek Areos hemera. In cognate German Dienstag and Dutch Dinsdag, the first element would appear to be Germanic ding, þing "public assembly," but it is now thought to be from Thinxus, one of the names of the war-god in Latin inscriptions.
tufa (n.) Look up tufa at
type of porous rock, 1770, from Italian tufa "tufa, porous rock," probably from Latin tufus, tophus "loose, porous volcanic rock," said to be an Oscan-Umbrian loan-word. Related: Tufaceous.
tuff (adj.) Look up tuff at
advertiser's spelling of tough (adj.), attested by 1940.
tuffet (n.) Look up tuffet at
1550s, "little tuft," from Old French touffel (with diminutive suffix -et for French -el), diminutive of touffe (see tuft). Obsolete except in the nursery rhyme "Little Miss Muffet" (1843), where it has been felt to mean "hassock, footstool."
LITTLE Miss Muffet
Sat on a tuffet
And made of her knees such display
That the old fashioned spider,
Embarrassed beside her,
Was actually frightened away!

[Life Oct. 1, 1927]
tuft (n.) Look up tuft at
"bunch of soft and flexible things fixed at the base with the upper ends loose," late 14c., of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old French touffe "tuft of hair" (14c.), which is either from Late Latin tufa "a kind of crest on a helmet" (also found in Late Greek toupha), or from a Germanic source (compare Old High German zopf, Old Norse toppr "tuft, summit;" see top (n.1)). As a verb from 1530s. Related: Tufted.
tug (v.) Look up tug at
c. 1200, from weak grade of Old English teohan "to pull, drag," from Proto-Germanic *teuhan "to pull" (cognates: Old High German zucchen "to pull, jerk," German zücken "to draw quickly), from PIE root *deuk- "to lead" (see duke (n.)). Related to tow (v.). Related: Tugged; tugging.
tug (n.) Look up tug at
mid-14c., in reference to some part of a harness;" c. 1500 as "act of pulling or dragging," from tug (v.). Meaning "small, powerful vessel for towing other vessels" is recorded from 1817. Phrase tug of war (1670s) was originally figurative, "the decisive contest, the real struggle," from the noun in the sense "supreme effort, strenuous contest of forces" (1650s). As an actual athletic event, from 1876.
tugboat (n.) Look up tugboat at
also tug-boat, 1830, from tug (n.) + boat (n.).
Tuileries Look up Tuileries at
former palace in Paris, begun by Catherine de Medici, 1564; so called because it was built on the site of an ancient tile-works, from Old French tieule "tile," from Latin tegula (see tile (n.)). The former residence of the royal court, it was destroyed by fire in 1871 and now is the site of the Jardin des Tuileries.
tuition (n.) Look up tuition at
early 15c., "protection, care, custody," from Anglo-French tuycioun (13c.), Old French tuicion "guardianship," from Latin tuitionem (nominative tuitio) "a looking after, a caring for, watching over, protection, guardianship," from tuitus, past participle of tueri "to look after" (see tutor (n.)). Meaning "action or business of teaching pupils" is recorded from 1580s. The meaning "money paid for instruction" (1828) probably is short for tuition fees, in which tuition refers to the act of teaching and instruction (a sense attested from 1580s).
tulip (n.) Look up tulip at
1570s, via Dutch or German tulpe, French tulipe "a tulip" (16c.), all ultimately from Turkish tülbent "turban," also "gauze, muslin," from Persian dulband "turban;" so called from the fancied resemblance of the flower to a turban.

Introduced from Turkey to Europe, where the earliest known instance of a tulip flowering in cultivation is 1559 in the garden of Johann Heinrich Herwart in Augsburg; popularized in Holland after 1587 by Clusius. The tulip-mania raged in Holland in the 1630s. The full form of the Turkish word is represented in Italian tulipano, Spanish tulipan, but the -an tended to drop in Germanic languages, where it was mistaken for a suffix. Tulip tree (1705), a North American magnolia, so called from its tulip-shaped flowers.
tulle (n.) Look up tulle at
fine silk bobbin-net, 1817, from Tulle, town in central France, where the fabric was first manufactured. The place name is Medieval Latin Tutelae, said to be from Tutela, name of a pagan god.
tumble (n.) Look up tumble at
"accidental fall," 1716, from tumble (v.). Earlier as "disorder, confusion" (1630s).
tumble (v.) Look up tumble at
c. 1300, "to perform as an acrobat," also "to fall down," perhaps from a frequentative form of Old English tumbian "dance about, tumble, leap." This is of unknown origin but apparently related to Middle Low German tummelen "to turn, dance," Dutch tuimelen "to tumble," Old High German tumon, German taumeln "to turn, reel." Transitive sense from late 14c. Related: Tumbled; tumbling.
tumble-down (adj.) Look up tumble-down at
1791, originally "habitually falling down" and used first of horses, from tumble (v.) + down (adv.); in reference to buildings, "in a dilapidated condition," from 1818.
tumbler (n.) Look up tumbler at
mid-14c., "acrobat," agent noun from tumble (v.). Compare Old English tumbere "tumbler, dancer." A fem. form was tumblester (early 15c.), tumbester (late 14c.) "female acrobatic dancer." Meaning "drinking glass" is recorded from 1660s, originally a glass with a rounded or pointed bottom which would cause it to "tumble;" thus it could not be set down until it was empty. As a part of a lock mechanism, from 1670s.
tumbleweed (n.) Look up tumbleweed at
also tumble-weed, 1881, from tumble (v.) + weed (n.).
tumbrel (n.) Look up tumbrel at
mid-15c., "two-wheeled cart for hauling dung, stones, etc.," earlier an instrument of punishment of uncertain type (early 13c.), from Old French tomberel "dump cart" (Modern French tombereau), from tomber "(let) fall or tumble," possibly from a Germanic source (compare Old Norse tumba "to tumble," Old High German tumon "to turn, reel;" see tumble (v.)). Notoriously the name given to the carts used to take victims to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror (though illustrations often show four-wheeled carts, not true tumbrels).
tumefaction (n.) Look up tumefaction at
"morbid swelling," early 15c., from Medieval Latin tumefaccionem (nominative tumefaccio), noun of action from Latin tumefactus, from tumescere (see tumescence).
tumescence (n.) Look up tumescence at
1725, from French tumescence, from Latin tumescentem (nominative tumescens) "swelling," present participle of tumescere "begin to swell, swell up," figuratively "grow excited, become enraged," inceptive of tumere "to swell" (see tumid) + inchoative suffix -escere.
tumescent (adj.) Look up tumescent at
1806, from Latin tumescentem (nominative tumescens), present participle of tumescere "to begin to swell, swell up" (see tumescence).
tumid (adj.) Look up tumid at
"morbidly swollen," 1540s, from Latin tumidus "swollen, swelling, rising high," figuratively "swollen with anger or pride," from tumere "to swell," from PIE root *teue- (2) "to swell" (see thigh). Figurative sense in English (in reference to prose, etc.) is attested from 1640s. Related: Tumidity.
tummy (n.) Look up tummy at
1867, infantile for stomach. Tummy-ache is attested from 1874.
tumor (n.) Look up tumor at
early 15c., from Latin tumor "swelling, condition of being swollen, a tumor," from tumere "to swell" (see tumid).
tumour (n.) Look up tumour at
chiefly British English spelling of tumor; see -or.
tumulous (adj.) Look up tumulous at
1727, from Latin tumulosus "full of hills," from tumulus "hill, mound, heap of earth" (see tumulus).
tumult (n.) Look up tumult at
late 14c., from Old French tumult (12c.), from Latin tumultus "commotion, bustle, uproar, disorder, disturbance," related to tumere "to be excited, swell" (see tumid).
tumultuous (adj.) Look up tumultuous at
1540s, from Middle French tumultuous (Modern French tumultueux), from Latin tumultuosus "full of bustle or confusion, disorderly, turbulent," from tumultus (see tumult). Related: Tumultuously; tumultuousness.
tumulus (n.) Look up tumulus at
ancient burial mound, 1680s, from Latin tumulus "hillock, heap of earth, mound," related to tumere "to swell" (see tumid).
tun (n.) Look up tun at
"large cask," especially one for wine, ale, or beer, Old English tunne "tun, cask, barrel," a general North Sea Germanic word (compare Old Frisian tunne, Middle Dutch tonne, Old High German tunna, German tonne), also found in Medieval Latin tunna (9c.) and Old French tonne (diminutive tonneau); perhaps from a Celtic source (compare Middle Irish, Gaelic tunna, Old Irish toun "hide, skin"). Tun-dish (late 14c.) was a funnel made to fit into the bung of a tun.
-- That? said Stephen. -- Is that called a funnel? Is it not a tundish? --
-- What is a tundish? --
--That. The ... the funnel. --
--Is that called a tundish in Ireland? -- asked the dean. -- I never heard the word in my life. --
-- It is called a tundish in Lower Drumcondra -- said Stephen, laughing -- where they speak the best English.--
-- A tundish -- said the dean reflectively. -- That is a most interesting word I must look that word up. Upon my word I must. --
His courtesy of manner rang a little false, and Stephen looked at the English convert with the same eyes as the elder brother in the parable may have turned on the prodigal. [Joyce, "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"]
tuna (n.) Look up tuna at
1881, from American Spanish (California) tuna, from Spanish atun, from Arabic tun, borrowed, probably in Spain, from Latin thunnus "tunny" (see tunny).
tundra (n.) Look up tundra at
an Arctic steppe, 1841, from Russian tundra, from Lappish tundar, said to mean "elevated wasteland" or "a marshy plain."
tune (n.) Look up tune at
early 14c., "a musical sound," unexplained variant of tone (n.). From late 14c. as "a well-rounded succession of musical notes, an air, melody." Meaning "state of being in proper pitch" is from mid-15c.
tune (v.) Look up tune at
"bring into a state of proper pitch," c. 1500, from tune (n.). Non-musical meaning "to adjust an organ or receiver, put into a state proper for some purpose" is recorded from 1887. Verbal phrase tune in in reference to radio (later also TV) is recorded from 1913; figurative sense of "become aware" is recorded from 1926. Tune out "eliminate radio reception" is recorded from 1908; figurative sense of "disregard, stop heeding" is from 1928. Related: Tuned; tuning.
tune-up (n.) Look up tune-up at
"adjustments made to an automobile to improve its working," 1911, from verbal phrase tune up "bring to a state of effectiveness," 1718, in reference to musical instruments, from tune (v.) + up (adv.). Attested from 1901 in reference to engines. Meaning "event that serves as practice for a later one" is from 1934, U.S. sports jargon.
tuneful (adj.) Look up tuneful at
1590s, from tune (n.) + -ful. Related: Tunefully.
tuneless (adj.) Look up tuneless at
1590s, from tune (n.) + -less. Related: Tunelessly; tunelessness.