victorious (adj.) Look up victorious at
late 14c., from Anglo-French victorious and directly from Late Latin victoriosus "having many victories," from victoria "victory" (see victory). Related: Victoriously; victoriousness.
victory (n.) Look up victory at
c. 1300, "military supremacy, victory in battle or a physical contest," from Anglo-French and Old French victorie (12c.) and directly from Latin victoria "victory," from past participle stem of vincere "to overcome, conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer"). V.E. ("victory in Europe") and V.J. ("victory in Japan") days in World War II were first used Sept. 2, 1944, by James F. Byrne, U.S. director of War Mobilization ["Washington Post," Sept. 10, 1944].
Victrola (n.) Look up Victrola at
1905, trademark of a phonograph, from Victor Talking Machine Co. According to a contemporary letter from company head Eldridge R. Johnson, coined because it had "a sound suggestive of music," with ending from pianola.
victual (n.) Look up victual at
c. 1300; see victuals.
victual (v.) Look up victual at
mid-14c., "to stock or supply (a ship, garrison, etc.) with provisions to last for some time," from Anglo-French or Old French vitaillier (12c.), from vitaille (see victuals). Related: Victualed; victualing; Victualer; victualler.
victuals (n.) Look up victuals at
c. 1300, vitaylle (singular), from Anglo-French and Old French vitaille "food, nourishment, provisions," from Late Latin victualia "provisions," noun use of plural of victualis "of nourishment," from victus "livelihood, food, sustenance, that which sustains life," from past participle stem of vivere "to live" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live"). Spelling altered early 16c. to conform with Latin, but pronunciation remains "vittles."
vicuna (n.) Look up vicuna at
Peruvian ruminant, c. 1600, from Spanish vicuña, from Quechua (Peru) wikuna, the native name of the animal.
vid. Look up vid. at
abbreviation of vide, Latin imperative singular of videre "to see" (see vision).
vide Look up vide at
"see," Latin imperative singular of videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see").
videlicet Look up videlicet at
"namely, to wit," mid-15c., see viz.
video (adj.) Look up video at
1935, as visual equivalent of audio, from Latin video "I see," first person singular present indicative of videre "to see" (see vision). As a noun, "that which is displayed on a (television) screen," 1937.
Engineers, however, remember the sad fate of television's first debut and are not willing to allow "video transmission" (as television is now called by moderns) to leave the laboratory until they are sure it will be accepted. ["The Michigan Technic," November 1937]
video game is from 1973.
video- Look up video- at
word-forming element; see video (adj.).
videocassette (n.) Look up videocassette at
1970, from video + cassette. Videocassette recorder is from 1971, usually VCR (also 1971), now a period piece.
videographer (n.) Look up videographer at
1980, from video + second element from photographer.
videotape (n.) Look up videotape at
1953, from video + tape (n.). The verb is 1958, from the noun. Related: Videotaped; videotaping.
vidette (n.) Look up vidette at
alternative form of vedette.
vie (v.) Look up vie at
1560s, "to bet, make a bet," (literally "make a vie, the noun attested from 1530s in cards), especially in card-playing, "to wager the value of one's hand against an opponent's," shortened form of Middle English envie "make a challenge," from Old French envier "compete (against), provoke; invite, summon, subpoena;" in gambling, "put down a stake, up the bet;" from Latin invitare "to invite," also "to summon, challenge" (see invitation). Sense of "to contend (with) in rivalry" in English is from 1560s; that of "to contend, compete, strive for superiority" is from c. 1600.
Vienna Look up Vienna at
capital of Austria, Latin Vindobona, from Gaulish vindo- "white," from Celtic *vindo- (source also of Old Irish find, Welsh gwyn "white;" see Gwendolyn) + bona "foundation, fort." The "white" might be a reference to the river flowing through it. Related: Viennese.
Viet Cong (n.) Look up Viet Cong at
"the communist guerilla force in Vietnam 1954-1976," also Vietcong, 1957, from Vietnamese, in full Viêt Nam Cong San, literally "Vietnamese communist."
Viet Minh (n.) Look up Viet Minh at
also Vietminh, 1945, name of the independence movement in French Indo-China 1941-50, in full Viêt Nam Dôc-Lâp Dông-Minh "Vietnamese Independence League."
Vietnam Look up Vietnam at
country in Southeast Asia, from Vietnamese Viet, the people's name + nam "south." Division into North and South lasted from 1954 to 1976. Vietnam War attested by 1963.
Vietnamese Look up Vietnamese at
1947 (adjective and noun), from Vietnam + -ese.
Vietnamization (n.) Look up Vietnamization at
1957, from Vietnam + -ization.
view (v.) Look up view at
1520s, "inspect, examine," from view (n.). From 1765 as "to regard in a certain way;" from 1935 as "to watch television." Related: Viewed; viewing.
view (n.) Look up view at
early 15c., "formal inspection or survey" (of land); mid-15c., "visual perception," from Anglo-French vewe "view," Old French veue "light, brightness; look, appearance; eyesight, vision," noun use of fem. past participle of veoir "to see," from Latin videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see"). Sense of "manner of regarding something" attested from early 15c. Meaning "sight or prospect of a landscape, etc." is recorded from c. 1600.
viewer (n.) Look up viewer at
early 15c., "civic official responsible for surveying property," agent noun from view (v.). Meaning "watcher of television" first recorded 1935, in place of earlier suggestion looker-in (1927).
viewing (n.) Look up viewing at
1540s, "inspection," verbal noun from view (v.). From 1944 as "last presentation of a dead body before the funeral" (earlier viewing (of) the remains, 1920); from 1959 as "the watching of television."
viewpoint (n.) Look up viewpoint at
1856, of mental positions; 1858 in a physical sense, from view + point (n.).
vigil (n.) Look up vigil at
c. 1200, "eve of a religious festival" (an occasion for devotional watching or observance), from Anglo-French and Old French vigile "watch, guard; eve of a holy day" (12c.), from Latin vigilia "a watch, watchfulness," from vigil "watchful, awake, on the watch, alert," from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively." Meaning "watch kept on a festival eve" in English is from late 14c.; general sense of "occasion of keeping awake for some purpose" is recorded from 1711.
vigilance (n.) Look up vigilance at
1560s, from Middle French vigilance (16c.), from Latin vigilantia "wakefulness, watchfulness, attention," from vigil "watchful, awake" (from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively"). Related: Vigilancy (1530s).
vigilant (adj.) Look up vigilant at
late 15c., from Middle French vigilant or directly from Latin vigilantem (nominative vigilans) "watchful, anxious, careful," present participle of vigilare "to watch, keep awake, not to sleep, be watchful," from vigil "watchful, awake" (from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively"). Related: Vigilantly.
vigilante (n.) Look up vigilante at
"member of a vigilance committee," 1856, American English, from Spanish vigilante, literally "watchman," from Latin vigilantem (nominative vigilans) "watchful, anxious, careful," from vigil "watchful, awake" (from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively"). Vigilant man in same sense is attested from 1824 in a Missouri context. Vigilance committees kept informal rough order on the U.S. frontier or in other places where official authority was imperfect.
vignette (n.) Look up vignette at
1751, "decorative design," originally a design in the form of vine tendrils around the borders of a book page, especially a picture page, from French vignette, from Old French diminutive of vigne "vineyard" (see vine). Sense transferred from the border to the picture itself, then (1853) to a type of small photographic portrait with blurred edges very popular mid-19c. Meaning "literary sketch" is first recorded 1880, probably from the photographic sense.
vigor (n.) Look up vigor at
c. 1300, "physical strength, energy in an activity," from Anglo-French vigour, Old French vigor "force, strength" (Modern French vigueur), from Latin vigorem (nominative vigor) "liveliness, activity, force," from vigere "be lively, flourish, thrive," from PIE root *weg- "to be strong, be lively."
vigorous (adj.) Look up vigorous at
c. 1300 (early 13c. as a surname), from Anglo-French vigrus, Old French vigoros "strong, robust, powerful" (12c., Modern French vigoreux), from Medieval Latin vigorosus, from Latin vigere "be lively, flourish, thrive" (see vigor). Related: Vigorously.
vigour (n.) Look up vigour at
chiefly British English spelling of vigor (q.v.); for spelling, see -or.
Viking (n.) Look up Viking at
Scandinavian pirate, 1801, vikingr, in "The History of the Anglo-Saxons" by English historian Sharon H. Turner (1768-1847); he suggested the second element might be connected to king:
The name by which the pirates were at first distinguished was Vikingr, which perhaps originally meant kings of the bays. It was in bays that they ambushed, to dart upon the passing voyager.
But this later was dismissed as incorrect. The form viking is attested in 1820, in Jamieson's notes to "The Bruce." The word is a historians' revival; it was not used in Middle English, but it was reintroduced from Old Norse vikingr "freebooter, sea-rover, pirate, viking," which usually is explained as meaning properly "one who came from the fjords," from vik "creek, inlet, small bay" (cognate with Old English wic, Middle High German wich "bay," and second element in Reykjavik). But Old English wicing and Old Frisian wizing are almost 300 years older than the earliest attestation of the Old Norse word, and probably derive from wic "village, camp" (large temporary camps were a feature of the Viking raids), related to Latin vicus "village, habitation" (from PIE root *weik- (1) "clan").

The connection between the Norse and Old English words is still much debated. The period of Viking activity was roughly 8c. to 11c. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the raiding armies generally were referred to as þa Deniscan "the Danes," while those who settled in England were identified by their place of settlement. Old Norse viking (n.) meant "freebooting voyage, piracy;" one would "go on a viking" (fara í viking).
vilayet (n.) Look up vilayet at
"province of the Turkish empire," 1869, from Turkish, from Arabic wilayah "province," from wali "governor," from waliya "he reigned, governed."
vile (adj.) Look up vile at
late 13c., "morally repugnant; morally flawed, corrupt, wicked; of no value; of inferior quality; disgusting, foul, ugly; degrading, humiliating; of low estate, without worldly honor or esteem," from Anglo-French ville, Old French vil "shameful, dishonorable; low-born; cheap; ugly, hideous," from Latin vilis "cheap, worthless, base, common," of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *wes- (1) "to buy, sell" (see venal). Related: Vilely; vileness; vilety (early 13c.).
vilification (n.) Look up vilification at
1620s, from Medieval Latin vilificationem (nominative vilificatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin vilificare (see vilify).
vilify (v.) Look up vilify at
mid-15c., "to lower in worth or value," from Late Latin vilificare "to make cheap or base; to esteem of little value," from Latin vilis "cheap, base" (see vile) + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Meaning "to slander, speak evil of" is first recorded 1590s. Related: Vilified, vilifying.
villa (n.) Look up villa at
1610s, "country mansion of the ancient Romans," from Italian villa "country house, villa, farm," from Latin villa "country house, farm," related to vicus "village, group of houses," from PIE *weik-sla-, suffixed form of root *weik- (1) "clan." Of modern structures from 1711.
village (n.) Look up village at
late 14c., "inhabited place larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town," from Old French vilage "houses and other buildings in a group" (usually smaller than a town), from Latin villaticum "farmstead" (with outbuildings), noun use of neuter singular of villaticus "having to do with a farmstead or villa," from villa "country house" (from PIE root *weik- (1) "clan"). As an adjective from 1580s. Village idiot is recorded from 1825. Related: Villager (1560s).
villain (n.) Look up villain at
c. 1300 (late 12c. as a surname), "base or low-born rustic," from Anglo-French and Old French vilain "peasant, farmer, commoner, churl, yokel" (12c.), from Medieval Latin villanus "farmhand," from Latin villa "country house, farm" (from PIE root *weik- (1) "clan").
The most important phases of the sense development of this word may be summed up as follows: 'inhabitant of a farm; peasant; churl, boor; clown; miser; knave, scoundrel.' Today both Fr. vilain and Eng. villain are used only in a pejorative sense. [Klein]
Meaning "character in a novel, play, etc. whose evil motives or actions help drive the plot" is from 1822.
villainous (adj.) Look up villainous at
c. 1300, "offensive, abusive," from Old French vileneus "worthless, base," from vilain (see villain). Sense of "despicable, shameful, morally corrupt" is from c. 1400 in English. Related: Villainously; villainousness.
villainy (n.) Look up villainy at
c. 1200, from Anglo-French vilanie, Old French vilenie "low character, unworthy act, disgrace, degradation," from vilain (see villain).
villanelle (n.) Look up villanelle at
poetic form (or a poem in this form) of five 3-lined stanzas and a final quatrain, with only two rhymes throughout, usually of pastoral or lyric nature, 1580s, from French villanelle, from Italian villanella "ballad, rural song," from fem. of villanello "rustic," from Medieval Latin villanus "farmhand" (see villain).
Villanova Look up Villanova at
European culture of the early Iron Age, 1901, named for a hamlet near Bologna where archaeological remains of it were found.
villein (n.) Look up villein at
early 14c., vileyn, spelling variant of villain in its reference to a feudal class of half-free peasants. It tends to keep the literal, historical sense of the word and let the pejorative meanings go with villain; Century Dictionary writes that "the forms villain, villein, etc., are historically one, and the attempt to differentiate them in meaning is idle," but Fowler finds this "a useful piece of differentiation." Related: Villeinage.
villus (n.) Look up villus at
"long, slender hair," 1704, plural villi, from modern use of Latin villus "tuft of hair, shaggy hair, wool, fleece" (see velvet).