- summer (n.1)
- "hot season of the year," Old English sumor, from Proto-Germanic *sumur- (cf. Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old High German sumar, Old Frisian sumur, Middle Dutch somer, Dutch zomer, German Sommer), from PIE root *sem- (cf. Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam, Old Welsh ham, Welsh haf "summer"). Old Norse sumarsdag, first day of summer, was the Thursday that fell between April 9 and 15.
Summer camp is attested from 1893; summer resort is from 1832; summer school first recorded 1860; theatrical summer stock is attested from 1942.
- summer (n.2)
- "horizontal bearing beam," late 13c., from Anglo-French sumer, Old French somer "main beam," originally "pack horse," from Vulgar Latin *saumarius, from Late Latin sagmarius "pack horse," from sagma "packsaddle" (see sumpter).
- summer (v.)
- "to pass the summer," mid-15c., from summer (n.1). Related: Summered; summering.